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Displaying posts with tag: storage engine (reset)
Which Version of MySQL Should I Use for MyRocks?

As database footprints continue to explode, many companies are looking for ways to deal with such rapid growth.  One approach is to refactor traditional relational databases to fit into a NoSQL engine, where horizontal scalability is easier.  However, in many cases, this is in no way a trivial undertaking.

Another approach that has been gaining interest is the use of MyRocks as an alternative storage engine to the traditional InnoDB.  While not for everyone, in certain use cases it could be a potential solution.  As with so many things open source, the next standard questions are: which version should I use?  Any differences with the engine if I use MyRocks with MySQL 5.7 vs 8.0?

In this post, I wanted to touch on this and give some high-level thoughts on MyRocks when it comes to the version of MySQL.

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Working to Validate MyRocks in the Enterprise with Dropbox

Percona Technical Account Managers get the privilege of working with some of our largest enterprise clients day in and day out.  As such, we get to really focus on how to best leverage our technology to generate measurable benefits for our users.  While it is fun to “nerd out” and always strive to use the latest and greatest, we need to stay focused on demonstrating business value and a genuine need.  Over the past few months, I’ve been working with one of my larger clients, Dropbox, along with our professional services team to validate the use of Percona Server for MySQL with the MyRocks storage engine over a large portion of their MySQL infrastructure.

Please note – this is not meant to be a deep dive into the technical details around …

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Overview of MySQL Alternative Storage Engines

For MySQL, MyISAM and InnoDB storage engines are very popular. Currently, we are mostly using InnoDB engines for high reliability and high performance. Apart from those engines, we also have some other alternative engines and they have some nice features in them. In this blog, I am going to explain some of those engines, which I have listed below. 

  • FEDERATED Storage Engine
  • Merge or MRG_MyISAM Engine
  • Blackhole Engine
  • CSV Engine

FEDERATED Storage Engine Overview:

  • FEDERATED Storage Engine allows you to access the data remotely without replication and cluster technologies. 
  • Using the FEDERATED tables, you can scale your server load. Queries for the given table will be sent over the network to another MySQL instance. In this case, to scale the DB, you can use many MySQL instances without changing the application code.
  • FEDERATED tables …
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Various Types of InnoDB Transaction Isolation Levels Explained Using Terminal

The goal of this blog post is to explain the various types of transaction isolation levels available in MySQL. After reading the blog, you will be able to explain dirty reads, non-repeatable reads, and the concept of phantom rows as well.

What is the Isolation Level in MySQL?

Isolation (I) is one of the properties from ACID. It defines how each transaction is isolated from other transactions and is a critical component of application design. As per the SQL:1992 standard, InnoDB has four types of Isolation levels. Below, I have listed the types in order, and each transaction isolation level provides better consistency compared to the previous one.


You can change the isolation level using the variable “transaction_isolation” at runtime. As transaction isolation changes can …

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MySQL 101: Tuning MySQL After Upgrading Memory

In this post, we will discuss what to do when you add more memory to your instance. Adding memory to a server where MySQL is running is common practice when scaling resources.

First, Some Context

Scaling resources is just adding more resources to your environment, and this can be split in two main ways: vertical scaling and horizontal scaling.

Vertical scaling is increasing hardware capacity for a given instance, thus having a more powerful server, while horizontal scaling is adding more servers, a pretty standard approach for load balancing and sharding.

As traffic grows, working datasets are getting bigger, and thus we start to suffer because the data that doesn’t fit into memory has to be retrieved from disk. This is a costly operation, even with modern NVME drives, so at some point, we will need to deal with either of the scaling solutions we mentioned.

In this case, we will discuss adding more …

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MySQL ERROR 1034: Incorrect Key File on InnoDB Table

Sometimes, you may experience “ERROR 1034: Incorrect key file” while running the ALTER TABLE or CREATE INDEX command:

mysql> alter table ontime add key(FlightDate);
ERROR 1034 (HY000): Incorrect key file for table 'ontime'; try to repair it

As the error message mentions key file, it is reasonable to assume we’re dealing with the MyISAM storage engine (the legacy storage engine which used to have such a thing), but no, we can clearly see this table is InnoDB!

When the error message in MySQL is confusing or otherwise unhelpful, it is a good idea to check the MySQL error log:

2019-02-24T02:02:26.100600Z 9 [Warning] [MY-012637] [InnoDB] 1048576 bytes should have been written. Only 696320 bytes written. Retrying for the remaining bytes.
2019-02-24T02:02:26.100884Z 9 [Warning] [MY-012638] [InnoDB] Retry attempts for writing partial data failed.
2019-02-24T02:02:26.100894Z 9 [ERROR] [MY-012639] [InnoDB] Write to file …
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InnoDB Flushing in Action for Percona Server for MySQL

As the second part of the earlier post Give Love to Your SSDs – Reduce innodb_io_capacity_max! we wanted to put together some concepts on how InnoDB flushing works in recent Percona Server for MySQL versions (8.0.x prior to 8.0.19, or 5.7.x). It is important to understand this aspect of InnoDB in order to tune it correctly. This post is a bit long and complex as it goes very deep into some InnoDB internals.

InnoDB internally handles flush operations in the background to remove dirty pages from the buffer pool. A dirty page is a page that is modified in memory but not yet flushed to disk. This is done to lower the write load and the latency of the transactions. Let’s explore the various sources of flushing inside InnoDB.

Idle Flushing

We already discussed the idle flushing in the previous post …

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Examining MySQL InnoDB Persistent Statistics

A few days ago I wrote about how grossly outdated statistics returned through MySQL’s Information_Schema can be. In that post, Øystein Grøvlen suggested taking a look at mysql.innodb_table_stats and mysql.innodb_index_stats as a better source of information. Let’s do just that!

Let’s start with the good news. Unlike MySQL Data Dictionary Tables (mysql.table_stats, etc),  mysql.innodb_table_stats and mysql.innodb_index_stats can be queried by the user. They also contain a lot of interesting statistics. Before we get to that though, let’s examine where those tables come from in more detail.

As the manual tells us, these tables are storing …

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Using Referential Constraints with Partitioned Tables in InnoDB

One of our support customers approached us with the following problem the other day:

mysql> CREATE TABLE child_table (
`id` int unsigned auto_increment,
`column1` varchar(64) NOT NULL,
parent_id int unsigned NOT NULL,
CONSTRAINT FOREIGN KEY (parent_id) REFERENCES parent_table (id));
ERROR 1215 (HY000): Cannot add foreign key constraint

They could not create a table with an FK relation! So, of course, we asked to see the parent table definition, which was:

CREATE TABLE `parent_table` (
  `id` int unsigned auto_increment, 
  `column1` varchar(64) COLLATE utf8_bin NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)

The parent table is partitioned!  This immediately explained the problem; partitioned tables can not be part of an FK relationship, as described (in point 10) here – …

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Contention in MySQL InnoDB: Useful Info From the Semaphores Section

In a high concurrency world, where more and more users->connections->threads are used, contention is a given. But how do we identify the contention point easily?

Different approaches had been discussed previously, like the one using Perf and Flame graphs to track down the function taking way more time than expected. That method is great but how can we do it with what one normally has, like the MySQL Client? Enter: the SEMAPHORES section from the SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS command output.


The SEMAPHORES section displays all the metrics related to InnoDB mechanics on waits. This section is your best friend if you have a high concurrency workload. In short, it contains 2 kinds of data: …

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