Showing entries 1 to 10 of 233
10 Older Entries »
Displaying posts with tag: mysql-and-variants (reset)
Is MySQL Statement-Based / Mixed Replication Really Safe?

The binary logging format in MySQL has been ROW by default since MySQL 5.7, yet there are still many users sticking with STATEMENT or MIXED formats for various reasons. In some cases, there is just simple hesitation from changing something that has worked for years on legacy applications. But in others, there may be serious blockers, most typically missing primary keys in badly designed schemas, which would lead to serious performance issues on the replicas.

As a Support Engineer, I can still see quite a few customers using STATEMENT or MIXED formats, even if they are already on MySQL 8.0. In many cases this is OK, but recently I had to deal with a pretty nasty case, where not using ROW format was found to cause the replicas to silently lose data updates, without raising any replication errors! Was it some really …

[Read more]
Looking for an Excellent MySQL Book for Beginners? The MySQL Workshop is a Great Choice

Last week at Percona Live, I was asked what book I recommend for novices seeking to learn MySQL.  For a long time, there has not been a good choice for modern versions of MySQL. Luckily I had just stumbled upon such a book.  Now I am happy to recommend The MySQL Workshop – A practical guide to working with data and managing databases with MySQL by Petit and Cosentino.

The first chapter introduces database architectures, data types, storage engines (including MyRocks), and data normalization. The following chapter cover in great detail how to create a database, using MySQL Workbench, backups & restoring data, and creating indexes. Chapter four has a very good section on working with SQL, functions, and case statements. Then JOINs and stored procedures are covered.

In another book, that would probably be enough content, but later chapters plunge into using Node.JS, Access, and Excel with …

[Read more]
Securing Dynamic Log File Locations in MySQL

MySQL allows changing the location of the general log and the slow query log while the server is running by anybody having the SYSTEM_VARIABLES_ADMIN privilege to any location, including appending to existing files. In Percona Server for MySQL 8.0.28-19 we introduced a new system variable, secure-log-path, that can be used to restrict the location of these log files to avoid accidents or possible data corruption attacks.

When somebody with the system variables admin privilege changes these variables, the server runs a few sanity checks. Unfortunately, these checks are quite minimal, and only verify that the specified file is writable by mysqld.

Compared to this, other variables specifying write-related file and directory names are either read-only during the runtime of the server (such as datadir, tmpdir, or log_error), or have additional …

[Read more]
Spring Cleaning: Discontinuing RHEL 6/CentOS 6 (glibc 2.12) and 32-bit Binary Builds of Percona Software

As you are probably aware, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 (RHEL 6 or EL 6 in short) officially reached “End of Life” (EOL) on 2020-11-30 and is now in the so-called Extended Life Phase, which basically means that Red Hat will no longer provide bug fixes or security fixes.

Even though EL 6 and its compatible derivatives like CentOS 6 had reached EOL some time ago already, we continued providing binary builds for selected MySQL-related products for this platform.

However, this became increasingly difficult, as the MySQL code base continued to evolve and now depends on tools and functionality that are no longer provided by the operating system out of the box. This meant we already had to perform several modifications in order to prepare binary builds for this platform, e.g. installing custom compiler versions or newer versions of various system …

[Read more]
MySQL 8.0.29 and Percona XtraBackup Incompatibilities

Earlier last week, Oracle released their Q2 releases series. Unlike previous releases, backward compatibility has now been broken with previous versions of MySQL.

MySQL 8.0.29 extended the support for the online DDL algorithm INSTANT. Prior to 8.0.29 only adding columns to the end of the table was supported.

In 8.0.29, this functionality was extended to allow the INSTANT algorithm the ability to add columns in any position of the table as well to drop columns. This new functionality required the redo log version to increase and new redo log types to be added, thus making it incompatible with older versions of the MySQL server and also older versions of Percona Xtrabackup. Please note that an in-place minor version downgrade of …

[Read more]
A Quick Peek At MySQL 8.0.29

Oracle released MySQL Server 8.0.29 on April 26th and this is a quick review of the release notes.  I have put my own comments in italics.

So what is in the ’29 release of MySQL Server?  Does it come festooned with new, neat features or is it a big bug-fix bonanza?

The TL;DR

While this server release has some interesting stuff, there is no compelling feature that will necessitate an immediate upgrade.  Read through the release notes to see if anything in there that is a must for you but for most of us, MySQL 8.0.29 does not require an immediate update.  If this was a birthday or holiday present, ’29 is the equivalent of getting a fresh box of dental floss – useful but not thrilling.

The shell is evolving too and the new version for VS Code looks promising.

MySQL Server 8.0.29 UTF8MB3?

The server now makes extensive use of UTF8MB3 (yes 3, not …

[Read more]
Zero Impact on Index Creation with Amazon Aurora 3

In the last quarter of 2021, AWS released Aurora version 3. This new version aligns Aurora with the latest MySQL 8 version, porting many of the advantages MySQL 8 has over previous versions.

While this brings a lot of new interesting features for Aurora, what we are going to cover here is to see how DDLs behave when using the ONLINE option. With a quick comparison with what happens in MySQL 8 standard and with Group Replication.

Tests

All tests were run on an Aurora instance r6g.large with a secondary availability zone. The test was composed of:

        Four connections

    • #1 to perform DDL
    • #2 to perform insert data in the table I am altering
    • #3 to perform insert data on a different table 
    • #4 checking the other node operations

In the Aurora instance, a …

[Read more]
Finding Differences Between MySQL Servers

When one is responsible for promoting application development from Dev through the various environments such as QA, UAT, etc., through Production, it is often useful to ensure that configurations in test environments are comparable to the final production environment.  This is especially true with systems where a team of DBAs manage the servers.

Obviously, the difference in performance could be due to differences in hardware, storage, networking, software configuration, etc.  The question is how does one quickly and efficiently find the differences without having to run a lot of different commands and compare the output.  Fortunately, our Percona Toolkit has a couple of utilities that can make this much easier.  When you are tasked with supporting large numbers of servers, efficiency is paramount and this is where the toolkit can really help you!

You can find more information on the Percona Toolkit here: …

[Read more]
pt-archiver with Auto-Increment Column – Debunking a Blame

As a best practice before dropping a large table in MySQL, pt-archiver can be used to delete all the records in batches. This helps to avoid a situation where your server may get stalled under certain circumstances.

I recently read a comment from a user saying “The pt-archiver is not working as expected! It is skipping the last record, which seems like a bug.”. Let’s examine pt-archiver’s default behavior and understand why the author of this comment believes that pt-archiver is bugged (Spoiler: It’s not!).

But wait, before continuing on busting the blame, let me clarify why to use pt-archiver before dropping large tables.

When we drop a table in MySQL:

  • Table data/index (ibd) and definition (frm) files are removed.
  • Triggers are removed.
  • Table definition cache is updated by removing the table being dropped.
  • InnoDB buffer pool is scanned for associated pages to …
[Read more]
Expose Databases on Kubernetes with Ingress

Ingress is a resource that is commonly used to expose HTTP(s) services outside of Kubernetes. To have ingress support, you will need an Ingress Controller, which in a nutshell is a proxy. SREs and DevOps love ingress as it provides developers with a self-service to expose their applications. Developers love it as it is simple to use, but at the same time quite flexible.

High-level ingress design looks like this: 

  1. Users connect through a single Load Balancer or other Kubernetes service
  2. Traffic is routed through Ingress Pod (or Pods for high availability)
    • There are multiple flavors of Ingress Controllers. Some use nginx, some envoy, or other proxies. See a curated list of Ingress Controllers here.
  3. Based on HTTP headers traffic is routed …
[Read more]
Showing entries 1 to 10 of 233
10 Older Entries »