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Understanding Indexes in MySQL: Part One

Indexes in MySQL are a very complex beast. We have covered MySQL indexes in the past, but we have never taken a deeper dive into them - we will do that in these series of blog posts. This blog post should act as a very general guide to indexes while the other parts of these series will dive a little bit deeper into these subjects. 

What are Indexes?

In general, as already noted in a previous blog post about indexes, an index is an alphabetical list of records with references to the pages on which they are mentioned. In MySQL, an index is a data structure that is most commonly used to quickly find rows. You might also hear the term “keys” - it refers to indexes too.

What do Indexes Do?

In MySQL indexes are used to quickly find rows with specific column values and to prevent reading through the entire table to find …

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A QLDB Cheat Sheet for MySQL Users

The AWS ledger database (QLDB) is an auditors best friend and lives up to the stated description of “Amazon QLDB can be used to track each and every application data change and maintains a complete and verifiable history of changes over time.”

This presentation will go over what was done to take a MySQL application that provided auditing activity changes for key data, and how it is being migrated to QLDB.

While QLDB does use a SQL-format for DML (PartiQL), and you can perform the traditional INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE/SELECT, the ability to extend these statements to manipulate Amazon Ion data (a superset of JSON) gives you improved capabilities and statements.

Get a comparison of how to map a MySQL structure multiple tables and lots of columns into a …

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Understanding AWS RDS Aurora Capabilities

The RDS Aurora MySQL/PostgreSQL capabilities of AWS extend the High Availability (HA) capabilities of RDS read replicas and Multi-AZ. In this presentation I discuss the different capabilities and HA configurations with RDS Aurora including:

  • RDS Aurora Cluster single instance
  • RDS Aurora Cluster multiple instances (writer + 1 or more readers)
  • RDS Aurora Cluster multi-master
  • RDS Aurora Global Cluster
  • RDS Aurora Cluster options for multi-regions

Each option has its relative merits and limitations. Each will depend on your business requirements, global needs and budget.

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Cloning MySQL InnoDB Cluster data-at-rest encrypted tables

MySQL Server offers, among the different security features, encryption at rest (or Transparent Data Encryption, TDE) in the commercial release (find the differences with Community here).

While testing TDE with MySQL InnoDB Cluster, I was wondering what inner mechanism was implemented to deal with TDE, master keys and keyrings, and the clone plugin. If I need to clone an instance, how would everything work so to guarantee my InnoDB Cluster instances will still be encrypted, and the keyring chosen would still use a good master key to decrypt tablespace keys and finally tablespace pages?

The answer is obviously that this is fully managed. You can add instances to …

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ClusterControl - High Noon with Tungsten Clustering for MySQL High Availability (HA), Disaster Recovery (DR) and Geographic Distribution

This is the next blog in our competitor comparison series in which we look at the main solutions for MySQL high availability, disaster recovery and geographic distribution. Here we focus on highly available, geo-scale, multi-region MySQL for mission-critical sites and apps with ClusterControl as compared to MySQL clusters with Continuent Tungsten, the only complete, fully-integrated clustering solution for MySQL - on-premises, in the cloud, hybrid-cloud or multi-cloud.

Tags: clustercontrolhigh availability (HA)MySQLdisaster recovery (DR)

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MySQL Track

May 13th is the day for the MySQL Tracks at the Percona Live  conference. 

Besides an announcement for an exciting new product, you will find sessions on:


  • MySQL Server Component Manifest Files
  • Insights into the new Oracle MySQL Database Service
  • Oracle MySQL Database Service with HeatWave for Real-Time Analytics
  • MySQL Architectures in a Nutshell
  • Successfully run your MySQL NDB Cluster in Kubernetes
  • Validating JSON
  • Migration from 5.6 to 8.xx.xx
  • Dbdeployer in action - Optimised MySQL sandboxes
  • MySQL Shell for DBAs (including Dump & Load)


All opinions expressed in this blog are those of Dave Stokes who is actually amazed to …

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MySQL Searched CASE Expression – with examples

During many decision-making phases in programming code (conditional logic), there are times execution depends on several different factors. Multiple conditional tests are powerful and constraining, oftentimes requiring more than one test to be passed in order for program flow to proceed. For MySQL (and standard SQL in general) the CASE expression is used for IF/THEN/ELSE conditional logic. The post, MySQL Simple CASE Expression – with examples, covered Simple CASE queries which are essentially equality tests. MySQL Simple CASE is but one variant of 2, with the other being a MySQL Searched CASE Expression.  A MySQL Searched CASE Expression can have multiple conditional tests in each WHEN

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Announcing MySQL Cluster 8.0.25

We are pleased to announce the release of MySQL Cluster 8.0.25. MySQL Cluster is the distributed, shared-nothing variant of MySQL. This storage engine provides: In-Memory storage – Real-time performance (with optional checkpointing to disk) Transparent Auto-Sharding – Read & write scalability Active-Active/Multi-Master geographic replication 99.999% High Availability with no single point of failure and on-line […]

Deploy Magento on MDS & HeatWave

Magento is an Open-Source e-commerce platform written in PHP using multiple other PHP frameworks such as Laminas and Symphony. Magento source code is distributed under Open Software License v3.0.

Deploying Magento is not always easy as it often requires registration. However the source code is also availble on GitHub.

Magento supports MySQL 8.0 since version 2.4.0 (July 28th 2020).

In Magento’s documentation, there is a warning about GTID support:

This is not anymore a …

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MySQL Connector/NET 8.0.25 has been released

Dear MySQL users,

MySQL Connector/NET 8.0.25 is the latest General Availability release
of the MySQL Connector/NET 8.0 series. This version supports .NET 5.0
and the X DevAPI, which enables application developers to write code
that combines the strengths of the relational and document models
using a modern, NoSQL-like syntax that does not assume previous
experience writing traditional SQL.

To learn more about how to write applications using the X DevAPI, see

http://dev.mysql.com/doc/x-devapi-userguide/en/

For more information about how the X DevAPI is implemented in
Connector/NET, see

http://dev.mysql.com/doc/dev/connector-net

NuGet packages provide functionality at a project level. To get the

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