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Displaying posts with tag: Insight for DBAs (reset)
PXC Scheduler Handler: The Missing Piece for Galera/Percona XtraDB Cluster Puzzle

Working on a real case scenario in a five node Percona XtraDB Cluster (PXC), we were forced to use wsrep_sync_wait = 1, because the app does reads-after-write and we send reads to all the nodes. We had the idea to leave some nodes in DESYNC mode to reduce the flow control messages during peak load and expected to have a steadier write throughput keeping the read consistency.

We decided to test Perconas’s new PXC Scheduler Handler which is an application that manages integration between ProxySQL and Galera/PXC (the scope is to maintain the ProxySQL mysql_server table, if a negative scenario occurs, like: failures, service degradation, and maintenance). However, we realized that when a node is in DESYNC mode, it is kicked out of the read hostgroup. That is …

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MyDumper 0.11.3 is Now Available

The new MyDumper 0.11.3 version, which includes many new features and bug fixes, is now available.  You can download the code from here.

We are very proud to announce that we were able to achieve the two main objectives for the milestone ZSTD and Stream support!  We added four packages with ZSTD support because not all the distributions have support for v1.4 or higher. Package libzstd is required to use ZSTD compression. ZSTD Bullseye package is only available with libraries for Percona Server for MySQL 8.0. There are two main use cases for the Stream functionality:

  • Importing while you are exporting
  • Remote backups
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Querying Archived RDS Data Directly From an S3 Bucket

A recommendation we often give to our customers is along the lines of “archive old data” to reduce your database size. There is a tradeoff between keeping all our data online and archiving part of it to cold storage.

There could also be legal requirements to keep certain data online, or you might want to query old data occasionally without having to go through the hassle of restoring an old backup.

In this post, we will explore a very useful feature of AWS RDS/Aurora that allows us to export data to an S3 bucket and run SQL queries directly against it.

Archiving Data to S3

Let’s start by describing the steps we need to take to put our data into an S3 bucket in the required format, which is called Apache Parquet.

Amazon states the Parquet format is up to 2x faster to export and consumes up to 6x less storage in S3, compared to other text formats.

1. Create a snapshot of the database (or …

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Temporary Tables in MySQL – Never Ending Story?

If you ever had to deal with performance and/or disk space issues related to temporary tables, I bet you eventually found yourself puzzled. There are many possible scenarios depending on the type of temporary table, settings, and MySQL version used. We have observed a pretty long evolution in that matter due to a couple of reasons. One of them was the need to completely eliminate the need to use the deprecated MyISAM engine, and at the same time introduce more performant and reliable alternatives. Another set of improvements was required related to InnoDB, where it was necessary to lower the overhead of temporary tables using that engine.

For that reason, I decided to gather them in a sort of summary which may help to troubleshoot their usage. Due to vast changes between major MySQL releases, I divided the article by them.

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How Triggers May Significantly Affect the Amount of Memory Allocated to Your MySQL Server

MySQL stores active table descriptors in a special memory buffer called the table open cache. This buffer is controlled by configuration variables table_open_cache that hold the maximum number of table descriptors that MySQL should store in the cache, and table_open_cache_instances that stores the number of the table cache instances. With default values of table_open_cache=4000 and table_open_cache_instances=16, MySQL will create 16 independent memory buffers that will store 250 table descriptors each. These table cache instances could be accessed concurrently, allowing DML to use cached table descriptors without locking each other.

If you use only tables, the table cache does not require a lot of memory because descriptors are lightweight, and even if you significantly increase the value of the table_open_cache, the required memory amount would not be so high. For example, …

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What if … MySQL’s Repeatable Reads Cause You to Lose Money?

Well, let me say if that happens it’s because there is a logic mistake in your application. But you need to know and understand what happens in MySQL to be able to avoid the problem. 

In short, the WHY of this article is to inform you about possible pitfalls and how to prevent them from causing you damage.

Let us start by having a short introduction to what Repeatable reads are about. Given I am extremely lazy, I am going to use (a lot) existing documentation from the MySQL documentation.

Transaction isolation is one of the foundations of database processing. Isolation is the I in the acronym ACID; the isolation level is the setting that fine-tunes the balance between performance and reliability, consistency, and reproducibility of results when multiple transactions are making changes and performing …

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Comparing Graviton (ARM) Performance to Intel and AMD for MySQL (Part 2)

Recently we published the first part of research comparing Graviton (ARM) with AMD and Intel CPU on AWS. In the first part, we selected general-purpose EC2 instances with the same configurations (amount of vCPU).  The main goal was to see the trend and make a general comparison of CPU types on the AWS platform only for MySQL. We didn’t set the goal to compare the performance of different CPU types. Our expertise is in MySQL performance tuning. We share research “as is” with all scripts, and anyone interested could rerun and reproduce it.
All scripts, raw logs and additional plots are available on GitHub: (2021_10_arm_cpu_comparison_c5,  …

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Comparing Graviton (ARM) Performance to Intel and AMD for MySQL

Recently, AWS presented its own CPU on ARM architecture for server solutions.

It was Graviton. As a result, they update some lines of their EC2 instances with new postfix “g” (e.g. m6g.small, r5g.nano, etc.). In their review and presentation, AWS showed impressive results that it is faster in some benchmarks up to 20 percent. On the other hand, some reviewers said that Graviton does not show any significant results and, in some cases, showed fewer performance results than Intel.

We decided to investigate it and do our research regarding Graviton performance, comparing it with other CPUs (Intel and AMD) directly for MySQL.

Disclaimer

  1. The test is designed to be CPU bound only, so we will use a read-only test and make sure there is no I/O activity during the test.
  2. Tests were run  on m5.* (Intel) , m5a.* (AMD),  m6g.*(Graviton) EC2 instances in the US-EAST-1 region. (List of EC2 see …
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MySQL 8: Random Password Generator

As part of my ongoing focus on MySQL 8 user and password management, I’ve covered how using the new dual passwords feature can reduce the overall DBA workload and streamline the management process. I’ve also covered how the new password failure tracking features can enable the locking of an account with too many failed password attempts (see MySQL 8: Account Locking).

There are other new and useful features that have been added to the user management capabilities in MySQL 8 however, and an often overlooked change was the implementation of a random password generator. First introduced in MySQL 8.0.18, with this feature, CREATE USER, ALTER USER, and SET PASSWORD statements have the capability of generating random passwords for user accounts as an alternative to …

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MySQL 8: Account Locking

As part of my ongoing focus on MySQL 8 user and password management, I’ve covered how the new dual passwords feature can reduce the overall DBA workload and streamline the management process (see MySQL 8: Dual Passwords). This wasn’t the only change to user/password management in MySQL 8; one of the more security-focused changes was the implementation of temporary account locking, first introduced in MySQL 8.0.19. With this feature, database administrators can now configure user accounts so that too many consecutive login failures can temporarily lock the account.

The account locking feature only applies to the failure of a client to provide a correct password during the connection attempt. It does not apply to failure to connect for other reasons (network issues, unknown user account, etc.). In the case of dual passwords, either of the account …

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