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Displaying posts with tag: slave (reset)
How to use Round-Robin Load Balancing with the Tungsten Connector

Overview The Skinny

Part of the power of Tungsten Clustering for MySQL / MariaDB is its intelligent MySQL Proxy, known as the Tungsten Connector. The Tungsten Connector has built-in read-write splitting capabilities, and it is also possible to configure different algorithms which select the appropriate slave (i.e. Round-Robin or Lowest-Latency).

The Question Recently, a customer asked us:

How do we best share the load between read-only slaves? Currently, there appears to be an imbalance, with most of the read-only queries reaching just one slave. What may we do to improve this situation?

This customer noticed that a couple of long …

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How to move the Relay role to another node in a Composite Tungsten Cluster

The Question Recently, a customer asked us:

How would we manually move the relay role from a failing node to a slave in a Composite Tungsten Cluster passive site?

The Answer The Long and the Short of It

There are two ways to handle this procedure manually when the usual switch command fails to work as expected. One is short and reasonably automated, and the other is much more detailed and manual.

Of course, the usual procedure is to just issue the switch command in the passive cluster:

use west
set policy maintenance
switch
set policy automatic

The below article describes what to do when the switch command does not move the relay role to another node.

SHORT

Below is the list of cctrl commands that would be run for the basic, short version, which (aside from handling policy changes) is really only …

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MySQL Ripple: The First Impression of a MySQL Binlog Server

Just about a month ago, Pavel Ivanov released Ripple under the Apache-2.0 license. Ripple is a MySQL binlog server: software which receives binary logs from MySQL or MariaDB servers and delivers them to another MySQL or MariaDB server. Practically ,this is an intermediary master which does not store any data, except the binary logs themselves, and does not apply events. This solution allows saving of a lot of resources on the server, which acts only as a middle-man between the master and its actual slave(s).

The intermediary server, keeping binary logs only and not doing any other job, is a prevalent use case which allows us to remove IO (binlog read) and network (binlog retrieval via network) load from the actual …

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MariaDB Galera cluster and GTID

In MariaDB 10.2.12, these two don’t yet work together. GTID = Global Transaction ID.  In the master-slave asynchronous replication realm, this means that you can reconnect a slave to another server (change its master) and it’ll happily continue replicating from the correct point.  No more fussing with filenames and offsets (which of course will both differ on different machines).

So in concept the GTIID is “globally” unique – that means it’s consistent across an entire infra: a binlogged write transaction will have the same GTID no matter on which machine you look at it.

  • OK: if you are transitioning from async replication to Galera cluster, and have a cluster as slave of the old infra, then GTID will work fine.
  • PROBLEM: if you want to run an async slave in a Galera cluster, GTID will currently not work. At least not reliably.

The overview issue is …

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RDS Aurora MySQL and Service Interruptions

In Amazon space, any EC2 or Service instance can “disappear” at any time.  Depending on which service is affected, the service will be automatically restarted.  In EC2 you can choose whether an interrupted instance will be restarted, or left shutdown.

For an Aurora instance, an interrupted instance is always restarted. Makes sense.

The restart timing, and other consequences during the process, are noted in our post on Aurora Failovers.

Aurora Testing Limitations

As mentioned earlier, we love testing “uncontrolled” failovers.  That is, we want to be able to pull any plug on any service, and see that the environment as a whole continues to do its job.  We can’t do that with Aurora, because we can’t control the essentials:

  • power button;
  • reset switch;
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RDS Aurora MySQL Failover

Right now Aurora only allows a single master, with up to 15 read-only replicas.

Master/Replica Failover

We love testing failure scenarios, however our options for such tests with Aurora are limited (we might get back to that later).  Anyhow, we told the system, through the RDS Aurora dashboard, to do a failover. These were our observations:

Role Change Method

Both master and replica instances are actually restarted (the MySQL uptime resets to 0).

This is quite unusual these days, we can do a fully controlled role change in classic asynchronous replication without a restart (CHANGE MASTER TO …), and Galera doesn’t have read/write roles as such (all instances are technically writers) so it doesn’t need role changes at all.

Failover Timing

Failover between running instances takes about 30 seconds.  This is in line with information provided in the …

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Exploring Amazon RDS Aurora: replica writes and cache chilling

Our clients operate on a variety of platforms, and RDS (Amazon Relational Database Service) Aurora has received quite a bit of attention in recent times. On behalf of our clients, we look beyond the marketing, and see what the technical architecture actually delivers.  We will address specific topics in individual posts, this time checking out what the Aurora architecture means for write and caching behaviour (and thus performance).

What is RDS Aurora?

First of all, let’s declare the baseline.  MySQL Aurora is not a completely new RDBMS. It comprises a set of Amazon modifications on top of stock Oracle MySQL 5.6 and 5.7, implementing a different replication mechanism and some other changes/additions.  While we have some information (for instance from the “deep dive” by AWS VP Anurag Gupta), the source code of the Aurora modifications …

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Checking if a Slave Has Applied a Transaction from the Master

In this blog post, we will discuss how we can verify if an application transaction executed on the master has been applied to the slaves.

In summary, is a good practice to alleviate the load on the master by doing reads on slaves. It is acceptable in most of the cases to just connect on slaves and issue selects. But there are some cases we need to ensure that the data we just applied on our master has been applied on the slaves before we query it.

One way to do this is using a built-in function called MASTER_POS_WAIT. This function receives a binary log name and position. It will block the query until the slave applies transactions up to that point, or timeout. Here is one example of how to use it:

-- insert our data on master
master [localhost] {msandbox} (test) > INSERT INTO test VALUES …
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Creating An External Slave For A Live AWS Aurora Instance

Overview

When working with Amazon AWS Aurora, there are some steps to consider when trying to get data out of an active Aurora master into a slave, potentially into a EC2 instance or offsite in another data centre. Creating an external mysql to Aurora gives the option to move out of Aurora, or to have the flexibility to move data around as desired. With AWS RDS instances this task is pretty simple because you can do the following :

  1. Create a read replica
  2. Stop the slave process
  3. Capture the positioning
  4. Dump the database

With Aurora it’s a little trickier, because a read replica in Aurora has no slave process. All of the replication is handled on the back end and cannot be controlled. However, setting up an external slave can be done.

Amazon AWS Documentation

In …

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Video on MySQL master slave Replication

A video session on "Intro to MySQL master slave Replication". Hope you enjoy it :)

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