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MySQL Query Performance

Working through our chapter on MySQL views, I wrote the query two ways to introduce the idea of SQL tuning. That’s one of the final topics before introducing JSON types.

I gave the students this query based on the Sakila sample database after explaining how to use the EXPLAIN syntax. The query only uses only inner joins, which are generally faster and more efficient than subqueries as a rule of thumb than correlated subqueries.

SELECT   ctry.country AS country_name
,        SUM(p.amount) AS tot_payments
FROM     city c INNER JOIN address a
ON       c.city_id = a.city_id INNER JOIN customer cus
ON       a.address_id = cus.address_id INNER JOIN payment p
ON       cus.customer_id = p.customer_id INNER JOIN country ctry
ON       c.country_id = ctry.country_id
GROUP BY ctry.country;

It generated the following tabular explain plan output:

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Faster Load data outfile in MySQL

While exporting the table with MySQL native utility, we don’t have any control on the process, and also there will be no progress update as well on the process completion. So when exporting the larger table will consume high resource utilization and also the disk space usage will also be high.

MySQL shell utility will make the process easier. It will export the table and we can import the data back with a parallel thread and also will provide the current progress status on export/import progress.

util.exportTable() utility was introduced in Shell – 8.0.22 version, will export the data in a controlled manner. We can store the data in either local or Cloud Infrastructure Object Storage bucket as well.

We will see about the compression ratio along with the time taken for native MySQL vs Shell utility

Feature :

  • Compression
  • Progress status
  • Supported output …
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MySQL WITH Clause

When I went over my example of using the WITH clause to solve how to use a series of literal values in data sets, some students got it right away and some didn’t. The original post showed how to solve a problem where one value in the data set is returned in the SELECT-list and two values are used as the minimum and maximum values with a BETWEEN operator. It used three approaches with literal values:

  • A list of Python dictionaries that require you to filter the return set from the database through a range loop and if statement that mimics a SQL BETWEEN operator.
  • A WITH clause that accepts the literals as bind variables to filter the query results inside the query.
  • A table design that holds the literals values that an analyst might use for reporting.

It was the last example that required elaboration. I explained you might build a web form that uses a table, and the table could allow a …

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MySQL with CTEs

As an example for my class on the usefulness of Common Table Expressions (CTEs), I created three examples with Python. They extend an exercise in Chapter 9 on subqueries from Learning SQL by Alan Beaulieu. All of the examples work with the sakila sample database.

These bullets describe the examples:

  1. Uses local variables and a range for loop and if statement that uses the variables to evaluate and add an element to the derived table (or query result set) from MySQL.
  2. Uses a CTE with substitution variables from the Python program, which eliminates the need to evaluate and add an element to the query result set because the query does that.
  3. Uses a table to hold the variables necessary to evaluate and add the element to the query result set.

This is the first Python program:

# Import the library.
import sys
import …
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How to setup an RDS MySql (Relation Database MySql) instance on AWS

RDS(Relational Database Service) comes under “Database” services of AWS(Amazon Web Services) Cloud. In this article, we will see how to create an RDS MySql Instance, provision and terminate it.

Installing Percona Server for MySQL on Rocky Linux 8

With the CentOS project switching its focus to CentOS Stream, one of the alternatives that aim to function as a downstream build (building and releasing packages after they’re released by Red Hat) is Rocky Linux. This how-to shows how to install Percona Server for MySQL 8.0 on the Rocky Linux distribution.

You can get the information on the distribution release version by checking the /etc/redhat-release file:

[root@rocky ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release
Rocky Linux release 8.4 (Green Obsidian)

Installing and Setting up the Percona Server for MySQL 8.0  Repository

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Title Case Anyone?

Sometimes life is too surreal. Like when somebody says, “How do you get title case in an Oracle database?” That’s when you know three things about the individual, while suppressing laughter. They’re not very experienced with SQL, likely lazy, and don’t read the documentation.

I had a little fun with somebody today by taking them down a small rat-hole. “Oh, gosh … ” I said, “… let’s write a function for that.” Here’s the joke function, like:

CREATE OR REPLACE
FUNCTION title_case
( string VARCHAR2 ) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS
BEGIN
  /* Change upper case to title case. */
  RETURN UPPER(SUBSTR(string,1,1)) || LOWER(SUBSTR(string,2,LENGTH(string)));
END title_case;
/

Then, we tested it with a query from the pseudo dual table:

SELECT title_case('incredible') AS "Proper Name" FROM dual;

It returned:

Proper Name
----------
Incredible

Then, I said “Oh, that’s not his …

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MySQL PHP Transaction

My students liked the MySQL Transaction post but wanted one that showed how an external web application would interact with MySQL in the scope of a transaction. So, I put a little PHP function together that write across two related tables in the context of a transaction. It uses mysqli (MySQL Improved Extension) to connect PHP to the MySQL database.

The function is barebones and uses the oldest approach of hidden inputs to maintain context between rendered forms using an HTML POST method. The hidden inputs are preceded with “h_” and snake case is used for variable names.

The function only writes to two tables. It writes to the member table and when that completes successfully to the contact table. The function:

  • Submits credentials from a file and raises an error when they don’t work.
  • Initializes a …
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MySQL Script Test

There are many ways to test and edit files. A lot of developers only use their favorite Integrated Developer Environment (IDE) but I find testing script files within the scope of a pipelined set of scripts much faster.

The ability to edit a script from within the MySQL Command-Line Interface (CLI) or MySQL Shell would be nice but unfortunately, doesn’t exist. You can always subshell to edit a file or list files in the present working directory, like:

mysql> \! vi task.sql

I prefer to test at the OS level while leveraging the up-arrow key for command history. Here’s my quick edit and test script technique from your present working directory:

  1. Assume you create a task.sql test file, like:
    SELECT user() AS "Current User"\G
    
  2. You can edit with vi or emac and test the script interactively from the present working directory.
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MySQL Transaction Scope

The idea of ACID transactions are a basic feature of SQL’s individual Data Manipulation Language (DML) commands, like the INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements. Transactions across two or more tables are a natural extension of ACID compliance features provided by DML commands. However, they require a structured programming approach, like a store procedure or like API implemented in an imperative language.

Surprisingly, transaction management wasn’t covered well in Alan Beaulieu’s Learning SQL because he only provided pseudo code logic. While I thought troubleshoot some broken MySQL SQL/PSM logic would be a good learning experience for students, it wasn’t. So, I wrote this sample code to show how to achieve an all or nothing transaction across four tables.

The code for this example on transaction management lets you perform the important tasks necessary to effect transaction …

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