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Displaying posts with tag: io (reset)
on performance stalls

We quite often say, that benchmark performance is usually different from real world performance – so performance engineering usually has to cover both – benchmarks allow to understand sustained performance bottlenecks, and real world analysis usually concentrates on something what would be considered ‘exceptional’ and not important in benchmarks – stalls of various kind. They are extremely important, as the state when our performance is lowest is the state of performance we provide to our platform users.

On a machine that is doing 5000qps, stalling for 100ms means that 500 queries were not served as fast as they could, or even hit application timeouts or exceptional MySQL conditions (like 1023 transaction limit). Of course, stalling for a second means 5000 queries were not served in time…

We have multiple methods to approach this – one is our …

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Determining I/O Throughput for a System

At Kscope this year, I attended a half day in-depth session entitled Data Warehousing Performance Best Practices, given by Maria Colgan of Oracle. In that session, there was a section on how to determine I/O throughput for a system, because in data warehousing I/O per second (iops) is less important than I/O throughput (how much actual data goes through, not just how many reads/writes).

The section contained an Oracle-specific in-database tool, and a standalone tool that can be used on many operating systems, regardless of whether or not a database exists:

If Oracle is installed, run DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CALIBRATE_IO:

SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
DECLARE
lat INTEGER;
iops INTEGER;
mbps INTEGER;
BEGIN
-- DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CALIBRATE_IO(<DISKS>, <MAX_LATENCY>,iops,mbps,lat);
DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CALIBRATE_IO (2, 10, iops, mbps, lat); …
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Log Buffer #182, a Carnival of the Vanities for DBAs

This is the 182nd edition of Log Buffer, the weekly review of database blogs. Make sure to read the whole edition so you do not miss where to submit your SQL limerick!

This week started out with me posting about International Women’s Day, and has me personally attending Confoo (Montreal) which is an excellent conference I hope to return to next year. I learned a lot from confoo, especially the blending nosql and sql session I attended.

This week was also the Hotsos Symposium. …

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IO benchmarking for MySQL, part 1

A while ago I started a project which will be heavily IO-bound on the MySQL Server, the testmachine allocated for this had a DAS with 15 disks (although I only used 14) connected via external SAS (standard 3Gb/s half-duplex or 6Gb/s full-duplex on two ports).

I used sysbench for the tests, both fileio and oltp, although these results will be based on the fileio results. The setup with the disks in RAID10 (7 raid 1 sets, then striping over them) and later RAID50 (2 raid 5 sets with 7 disks each, then striping over that), the latter yielding better results.

Let’s take a look at 1,2,4,8,16 and 128 concurrent clients, with different IO schedulers, although using XFS.
The config for the raid controller was write-back, cached access, advanced readahead. 512MB battery backed cache on the controller.

Also, I tested both sequential reading (SEQRD in the graphs) and random read/write (RNDRW in the graphs)

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EC2/EBS single and RAID volumes IO benchmark

During preparation of Percona-XtraDB template to run in RightScale environment, I noticed that IO performance on EBS volume in EC2 cloud is not quite perfect. So I have spent some time benchmarking volumes. Interesting part with EBS volumes is that you see it as device in your OS, so you can easily make software RAID from several volumes.

So I created 4 volumes ( I used m.large instance), and made:

RAID0 on 2 volumes as:
mdadm -C /dev/md0 --chunk=256 -n 2 -l 0 /dev/sdj /dev/sdk

RAID0 on 4 volumes as:
mdadm -C /dev/md0 --chunk=256 -n 4 -l 0 /dev/sdj /dev/sdk /dev/sdl /dev/sdm

RAID5 on 3 volumes as:
mdadm -C /dev/md0 --chunk=256 -n 3 -l 5 /dev/sdj /dev/sdk /dev/sdl

RAID10 on 4 volumes in two steps:

mdadm -v --create /dev/md0 --chunk=256 --level=raid1 --raid-devices=2 …

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Linux 2.6.29

2.6.29 was released. I don’t usually write about linux kernel releases, thats what Slashdot is for :), but this one introduces write barriers in LVM, as well as ext4 with write barriers enabled by default. If you run this kernel and forget to turn off barrier support at filesystems (like XFS, nobarrier), you will see nasty performance slowdowns (recent post about it). Beware.

iostat -x

My favorite Linux tool in DB work is ‘iostat -x’ (and I really really want to see whenever I’m doing any kind of performance analysis), yet I had to learn its limitations and properties. For example, I took 1s snapshot from a slightly overloaded 16-disk database box:

avg-cpu:  %user   %nice %system %iowait  %steal   %idle
           8.12    0.00    2.57   21.65    0.00   67.66

Device:  rrqm/s   wrqm/s     r/s     w/s   rsec/s   wsec/s \
sda     7684.00    19.00 2420.00  498.00 81848.00  5287.00 \

        avgrq-sz avgqu-sz   await  svctm  %util
           29.86    32.99   11.17   0.34 100.00

I pasted this somewhere on IRC, and got “doesn’t look too healthy” and that it is disk-bound. Now, to understand if it really is, one has to understand what iostat tells here.

First line of numbers shows that we’ve got plenty of CPU resources (thats because nowadays it is quite difficult to get a box with not enough CPU power, …

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