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Displaying posts with tag: optimizer (reset)
Rows Examined not Trustworthy because of Index Condition Pushdown

When Index Condition Pushdown is used, you cannot trust rows examined as reported by the slow query log (nor in some Performance Schema tables) and you cannot trust the global status Innodb_rows_read (nor the InnoDB Metrics dml_reads).  These can lead to an incorrect query complexity analysis, to a mistaken estimation of the total load of a MySQL server, and to a lot of wasted time.  As we go

Why write a new planner

Query planning is hard # Have you ever wondered what goes on behind the scenes when you execute a SQL query? What steps are taken to access your data? In this article, I'll talk about the history of Vitess's V3 query planner, why we created a new query planner, and the development of the new Gen4 query planner. Vitess is a horizontally scalable database solution which means that a single table can be spread out across multiple database instances.

Examining query plans in MySQL and Vitess

Originally posted at Andres's blog. Traditional query optimizing is mostly about two things: first, in which order and from where to access data, and then how to then combine it. You have probably seen the tree shapes execution plans that are produced from query planning. I’ll use an example from the MySQL docs, using FORMAT=TREE which was introduced in MySQL 8.0: mysql>EXPLAINFORMAT=TREE->SELECT*->FROMt1->JOINt2->ON(t1.c1=t2.c1ANDt1.c2<t2.c2)->JOINt3->ON(t2.c1=t3.c1)\G***************************1.row***************************EXPLAIN:->Innerhashjoin(t3.c1=t1.c1)(cost=1.05rows=1)->Tablescanont3(cost=0.35rows=1)->Hash->Filter:(t1.c2<t2.c2)(cost=0.70rows=1)->Innerhashjoin(t2.c1=t1.c1)(cost=0.70rows=1)->Tablescanont2(cost=0.35rows=1)->Hash->Tablescanont1(cost=0.35rows=1)Here we can see that the MySQL optimizer thinks the best plan is to start reading from t1 using a table scan.

MySQL 8.0.20: Index-Level Optimizer Hints

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MySQL introduced optimizer hints in version 5.7 and greatly extended the feature in MySQL 8. One thing that has been missing though is the ability to specify index hints using the syntax of optimizer hints. This has been improved of in MySQL 8.0.20 with the introduction of index-level optimizer hints for the FORCE and IGNORE versions of the index hints. This blog will look at the new index hint syntax.

Warning

Do not add index hints – neither using the old or new style – unless you really need them. When you add index hints, you limit the options of the optimizer which can prevent the optimizer obtaining the optimal query plan as new optimizer improvements are implemented or the data changes.

On …

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A must-know about NOT IN in SQL – more antijoin optimization

I will try to make it short and clear: if you are writing SQL queries with “NOT IN” like
SELECT … WHERE x NOT IN (SELECT y FROM …)
you have to be sure to first understand what happens when “x” or “y” are NULL: it might not be what you want!…

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A new, simple way to figure out why your recursive CTE is running away

In MySQL 8.0.1, we introduced support for recursive common table expressions (CTE). There are quite a few blog entries showcasing the feature, starting from this one, and there is also a complete documentation. Today, I would like to present a solution to a problem which nearly everybody meets when writing queries with recursive CTE’s: when infinite recursion happens, how to debug ?…

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Antijoin in MySQL 8

In MySQL 8.0.17, we made an observation in the well-known TPC-H benchmark for one particular query. The query was executing 20% faster than in MySQL 8.0.16. This improvement is because of the “antijoin” optimization which I implemented. Here is its short mention in the release notes:

“The optimizer now transforms a WHERE condition having NOT IN (subquery), NOT EXISTS (subquery), IN (subquery) IS NOT TRUE, or EXISTS (subquery) IS NOT TRUE internally into an antijoin, thus removing the subquery.”

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Hash join in MySQL 8

For a long time, the only algorithm for executing a join in MySQL has been variations of the nested loop algorithm. With the release of MySQL 8.0.18, the server can now execute joins using hash join. This blog post will have a look at how it works, when it is used, and how it compares to the old join algorithms in MySQL in terms of performance.…

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MySQL EXPLAIN ANALYZE

MySQL 8.0.18 was just released, and it contains a brand new feature to analyze and understand how queries are executed: EXPLAIN ANALYZE.

What is it?

EXPLAIN ANALYZE is a profiling tool for your queries that will show you where MySQL spends time on your query and why.…

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MySQL Optimizer: Naughty Aberrations on Queries Combining WHERE, ORDER BY and LIMIT

Sometimes, the MySQL Optimizer chooses a wrong plan, and a query that should execute in less than 0.1 second ends-up running for 12 minutes !  This is not a new problem: bugs about this can be traced back to 2014, and a blog post on this subject was published in 2015.  But even if this is old news, because this problem recently came yet again to my attention, and because this is still not fixed in MySQL 5.7 and 8.0, this is a subject worth writing about.

The MySQL Optimizer

Before looking at the problematic query, we have to say a few words about the optimizer.  The Query Optimizer is the part of query execution that chooses the query plan.  A Query Execution Plan is the way MySQL chooses to execute a specific query.  It …

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