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Displaying posts with tag: Insight for DBAs (reset)
How to obtain the MySQL version from an FRM file

I recently helped a customer figure out why a minor version MySQL upgrade was indicating that some tables needed to be rebuilt. The mysql_upgrade program should be run for every upgrade, no matter how big or small the version difference is, but when only the minor version changes, I would normally not expect it to require tables to be rebuilt.

Turns out some of their tables were still marked with an older MySQL version, which could mean a few things… most likely that something went wrong with a previous upgrade, or that the tables were copied from a server with an older version.

In cases like this, did you know there is a fast, safe and simple way to check the version associated with a table? You can do this by reading the FRM file, following the format specification found here.

If you look at that page, you’ll see that the …

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MySQL QA Episode 3: How to use the debugging tool GDB

Welcome to MySQL QA Episode 3: “Debugging: GDB, Backtraces, Frames and Library Dependencies”

In this episode you’ll learn how to use debugging tool GDB. The following debugging topics are covered:

1. GDB Introduction
2. Backtrace, Stack trace
3. Frames
4. Commands & Logging
5. Variables
6. Library dependencies
7. c++filt
8. Handy references
– GDB Cheat sheet (page #2):
– From Crash to testcase:

Also expands on live debugging & more. In HD quality (set your player to 720p!)

The post MySQL QA Episode 3: How to use the debugging tool GDB appeared …

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Getting EXPLAIN information from already running queries in MySQL 5.7

When a new version of MySQL is about to be released we read a lot of blog posts about the performance and scalability improvements. That’s good but sometimes we miss some small features that can help us a lot in our day-to-day tasks. One good example is the blog post that Aurimas wrote about a new small feature in MySQL 5.6 that I didn’t know about until I read it: the Automatic InnoDB transaction log file size change. How cool is that?

I plan to write a series of blog posts that will show some of those small new features in MySQL 5.7 that are going to be really useful. I’m going to start with EXPLAIN FOR CONNECTION.

This feature allows us to run an EXPLAIN for an already running statement. Let’s say that you find a query …

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Optimizing Percona XtraDB Cluster for write hotspots

Some applications have a heavy write workload on a few records – for instance when incrementing a global counter: this is called a write hotspot. Because you cannot update the same row simultaneously from multiple threads, this can lead to performance degradation. When using Percona XtraDB Cluster (PXC), some users try to solve this specific issue by writing on multiple nodes at the same time. Good idea or bad idea? Read on!

Simultaneous writes on a standalone InnoDB server

Say you have these 3 transactions being run simultaneously (id is the primary key of the table):

# T1
UPDATE t SET ... WHERE id = 100
# T2
UPDATE t SET ... WHERE id = 100
# T3
UPDATE t SET ... WHERE id = 101

All transactions will require a row lock on the record they want to modify. So T3 can commit at the same time than T1 and/or T2, because it will …

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Is 80% of RAM how you should tune your innodb_buffer_pool_size?

It seems these days if anyone knows anything about tuning InnoDB, it’s that you MUST tune your innodb_buffer_pool_size to 80% of your physical memory. This is such prolific tuning advice, it seems engrained in many a DBA’s mind.  The MySQL manual to this day refers to this rule, so who can blame the DBA?  The question is: does it makes sense?

What uses the memory on your server?

Before we question such advice, let’s consider what can take up RAM in a typical MySQL server in their broad categories.  This list isn’t necessarily complete, but I think it outlines the large areas a MySQL server could consume memory.

  • OS Usage: Kernel, running processes, filesystem cache, etc.
  • MySQL fixed usage: query cache, InnoDB …
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MySQL indexing 101: a challenging single-table query

We discussed in an earlier post how to design indexes for many types of queries using a single table. Here is a real-world example of the challenges you will face when trying to optimize queries: two similar queries, but one is performing a full table scan while the other one is using the index we specially created for these queries. Bug or expected behavior? Read on!

Our two similar queries

# Q1
mysql> explain select col1, col2 from t where ts >= '2015-04-30 00:00:00';
| id | select_type | table         | type | possible_keys | key  | key_len | ref  | rows    | Extra       |
|  1 | SIMPLE      | t …
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Keep your MySQL data in sync when using Tungsten Replicator

MySQL replication isn’t perfect and sometimes our data gets out of sync, either by a failure in replication or human intervention. We are all familiar with Percona Toolkit’s pt-table-checksum and pt-table-sync to help us check and fix data inconsistencies – but imagine the following scenario where we mix regular replication with the Tungsten Replicator:

We have regular replication going from master (db1) to 4 slaves (db2, db3, db4 and db5), but also we find that db3 is also master of db4 and db5 using Tungsten replication for 1 database called test. This setup is currently working this way because it was deployed some time ago when multi-source replication was not possible using regular MySQL replication. This is now a working feature in …

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Optimizer hints in MySQL 5.7.7 – The missed manual

In version MySQL 5.7.7 Oracle presented a new promising feature: optimizer hints. However it did not publish any documentation about the hints. The only note which I found in the user manual about the hints is:

  • It is now possible to provide hints to the optimizer by including /*+ ... */ comments following the SELECT, INSERT, REPLACE, …
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Test your knowledge: Percona XtraDB Cluster (PXC) quiz

I often talk with people who are very interested in the features of Percona XtraDB Cluster (PXC) such as synchronous and parallel replication, multi-node writing and high availability. However some get confused when operating a real PXC cluster because they do not fully realize the implications of these features. So here is a fun way to test your PXC knowledge: try to solve these 12 questions related to PXC! (you will find the answers at the end of the post.)


1. With Galera 3.x, support for MyISAM is experimental. When can we expect to have full MyISAM support?
a. This will never happen as Galera is designed for transactional storage engines.
b. This is planned for Galera 4.0.

2. Why aren’t all workloads a good fit for PXC?
a. Execution plans can change compared to a regular MySQL server, so performance is sometimes not as good as with a regular MySQL server.
b. Large …

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Indexing 101: Optimizing MySQL queries on a single table

I have recently seen several cases when performance for MySQL queries on a single table was terrible. The reason was simple: the wrong indexes were added and so the execution plan was poor. Here are guidelines to help you optimize various kinds of single-table queries.

Disclaimer: I will be presenting general guidelines and I do not intend to cover all scenarios. I am pretty confident that you can find examples where what I am writing does not work, but I am also confident that it will help you most of the time. Also I will not discuss features you can find in MySQL 5.6+ like Index Condition Pushdown to keep things simple. Be aware that such features can actually make a significant difference in query response time (for good or for bad).

What an index can do for you

An index can perform up to 3 actions: filter, sort/group and cover. While the first 2 actions are self-explanatory, not everyone may know what …

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