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Displaying posts with tag: Stéphane Combaudon (reset)
Indexing 101: Optimizing MySQL queries on a single table

I have recently seen several cases when performance for MySQL queries on a single table was terrible. The reason was simple: the wrong indexes were added and so the execution plan was poor. Here are guidelines to help you optimize various kinds of single-table queries.

Disclaimer: I will be presenting general guidelines and I do not intend to cover all scenarios. I am pretty confident that you can find examples where what I am writing does not work, but I am also confident that it will help you most of the time. Also I will not discuss features you can find in MySQL 5.6+ like Index Condition Pushdown to keep things simple. Be aware that such features can actually make a significant difference in query response time (for good or for bad).

What an index can do for you

An index can perform up to 3 actions: filter, sort/group and cover. While the first 2 actions are self-explanatory, not everyone may know what …

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MySQL shell prompt vs MongoDB shell prompt

Recently Todd Farmer shared an interesting story about the mysql command line prompt in MySQL 5.7: how it was changed to provide more context and why the change was finally reverted. This made me think that after using the command line client for MongoDB for awhile, I would love seeing a much more modern mysql shell prompt. Here are a few examples of what a modern command line client can do.

Add dynamic information to the prompt

If you use replication with MongoDB, you have probably noticed a nice feature of the prompt: it is replication aware. What I mean is that for a standalone instance, the prompt is simply:

>

When you configure this instance to be the primary of a replica set named RS, the prompt automatically becomes:

RS:PRIMARY>

and for secondaries, you will see:

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Choosing a good sharding key in MongoDB (and MySQL)

MongoDB 3.0 was recently released. Instead of focusing on what’s new – that is so easy to find, let’s rather talk about something that has not changed a lot since the early MongoDB days. This topic is sharding and most specifically: how to choose a good sharding key. Note that most of the discussion will also apply to MySQL, so if you are more interested in sharding than in MongoDB, it could still be worth reading.

When do you want to shard?

In general sharding is recommended with MongoDB as soon as any of these conditions is met:

  • #1: A single server can no longer handle the write workload.
  • #2: The working set no longer fits in memory.
  • #3: The dataset is too large to easily fit in a single server.

Note that #1 and #2 are by far the most common reason why people need sharding. Also note that in the MySQL world, #2 does not imply that you need sharding.

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Q&A: Multi-threaded Replication in MySQL 5.6 and MySQL 5.7

My webinar “Multi-threaded Replication in MySQL 5.6 and 5.7″ on February 25 generated several excellent questions following the presentation (available here for playback along with the slides). I didn’t have time to answer many of the questions during the session and so in this post I answer all of them. Thanks to everyone who attended!

Q: What do you expect from MTS with logical clock? Do you think performance would be good as with per database?
A: MTS with 5.6 is not usable if you have a single database. I do not have numbers, but this is quite frequent. With 5.7 everyone should be able to benefit from multi-threaded replication.

Q: When MySQL 5.6 was released, performance of MTS was lower, than in 5.5, for example. Is this addressed now?
A: I am not sure which …

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Emulating MySQL roles with the Percona PAM plugin and proxy users

From time to time people wonder how to implement roles in MySQL. This can be useful for companies having to deal with many user accounts or for companies with tight security requirements (PCI or HIPAA for instance). Roles do not exist in regular MySQL but here is an example on how to emulate them using Percona Server, the PAM plugin and proxy users.

The goal

Say we have 2 databases: db1 and db2, and we want to be able to create 3 roles:

  • db1_dev: can read and write on db1 only.
  • db2_dev: can read and write on db2 only.
  • stats: can read on db1 and db2

For each role, we will create one user: joe (db1_dev), mike (db2_dev) and tom (stats).

Setting up the Percona PAM plugin

The Percona PAM plugin is distributed with Percona Server 5.5 and 5.6. I will be using …

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More on MySQL 5.6 multi-threaded replication and GTIDs (and Feb. 25 webinar)

In a previous post, titled “Multi-threaded replication with MySQL 5.6: Use GTIDs,” I explained that using GTID replication is almost a requirement when using MySQL 5.6 MTS. Let’s see now how to perform the day-to-day operations when MTS and GTIDs are both enabled. (I’ll also be presenting a related webinar next week titled “Multi-threaded Replication in MySQL 5.6 and 5.7″).

Seeing the execution gaps

If you have a look at SHOW SLAVE STATUS while the slave is running, you may not be expecting such an output:

[...]
Executed_Gtid_Set: …
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Percona XtraDB Cluster 5.6: a tale of 2 GTIDs

Say you have a cluster with 3 nodes using Percona XtraDB Cluster (PXC) 5.6 and one asynchronous replica connected to node1. If asynchronous replication is using GTIDs, moving the replica so that it is connected to node2 is trivial, right? Actually replication can easily break for reasons that may not be obvious at first sight.

Summary

Let’s assume we have the following setup with 3 PXC nodes and one asynchronous replica:


Regarding MySQL GTIDs, a Galera cluster behaves like a distributed master: transactions coming from any node will use the same auto-generated uuid. This auto-generated uuid is related to the Galera uuid, it’s neither ABC, nor DEF, nor GHI.

Transactions executed for …

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Online GTID rollout now available in Percona Server 5.6

Global Transaction IDs (GTIDs) are one of my favorite features of MySQL 5.6. The main limitation is that you must stop all the servers at the same time to allow GTID-replication. Not everyone can afford to take a downtime so this requirement has been a showstopper for many people. Starting with Percona Server 5.6.22-72.0 enabling GTID replication can be done without almost no downtime. Let’s see how to do it.

Implementation of the Facebook patch

Finding a solution to migrate to GTIDs with no downtime is not a new idea, and several companies have already developed their own patch. The 2 best known implementations are the one from Facebook and the one from …

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Multi-threaded replication with MySQL 5.6: Use GTIDs!

MySQL 5.6 allows you to execute replicated events in parallel as long as data is split across several databases. This feature is named “Multi-Threaded Slave” (MTS) and it is easy to enable by setting slave_parallel_workers to a > 1 value. However if you decide to use MTS without GTIDs, you may run into annoying issues. Let’s look at two of them.

Skipping replication errors

When replication stops with an error, a frequent approach is to “ignore now and fix later.” This means you will run SET GLOBAL sql_slave_skip_counter=1 to be able to restart replication as quickly as possible and later use pt-table-checksum/pt-table-sync to resync data on the slave.

Then the day when I hit:

mysql> show slave status;
[...]
Last_SQL_Error: Worker 0 failed executing transaction '' at master log mysql-bin.000017, end_log_pos 1216451; Error 'Duplicate entry '1001' for key 'PRIMARY'' on query. …
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Diagnosing SST errors with Percona XtraDB Cluster for MySQL

State Snapshot Transfer (SST) is used in Percona XtraDB Cluster (PXC) when a new node joins the cluster or to resync a failed node if Incremental State Transfer (IST) is no longer available. SST is triggered automatically but there is no magic: If it is not configured properly, it will not work and new nodes will never be able to join the cluster. Let’s have a look at a few classic issues.

Port for SST is not open

The donor and the joiner communicate on port 4444, and if the port is closed on one side, SST will always fail.

You will see in the error log of the donor that SST is started:

[...]
141223 16:08:48 [Note] WSREP: Node 2 (node1) requested state transfer from '*any*'. Selected 0 (node3)(SYNCED) as donor.
141223 16:08:48 [Note] WSREP: Shifting SYNCED -> DONOR/DESYNCED (TO: 6)
141223 …
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