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Displaying posts with tag: memory (reset)
How having many tables affects MySQL memory usage?


You could say: what could be the reason for having really big number of tables? Just design the application properly! It’s not always that easy. And this post isn’t really about arguing whether having many tables is good or not, it’s about what happens in terms of memory usage if you already reached that point.

Btw what do I mean by *many*? From my experience it’s tens of thousends or even millions rather than hundreds.

The inspiration for me to write this post was strong desire to try out the latest declared improvements in that area announced to be done in MySQL 5.6. _1

What I did was a very simple test where I loaded sql dump of databases and tables definitions only into different versions of MySQL. During the load time I was monitoring memory usage of mysqld process (RSS …

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Better Controlling MySQL Memory Usage

MySQL, like a lot of other software, has many knobs you can tweak. Most of these knobs may affect behaviour, but more importantly most affect the memory usage of the server, so getting these settings right is very important.

Most of MySQL’s memory is really used just as a cache, in one form or another, information that otherwise is on disk. So ensuring you have as large a cache as possible is important. However, making these memory sizes too large will trigger the server to start swapping and possibly can cause it to crash or cause the kernel to kill the process when it runs out of memory.  So that’s something we want to avoid.

Certain settings affect memory allocation on a per connection/thread basis, being bounded by thread_cache_size and max_connections.  If you configure for the worst behaviour (max_connections) you may end up not actually using all the memory you have available, memory which normally could be …

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Improving InnoDB memory usage

Last month we did a few improvements in InnoDB memory usage. We solved a challenging issue about how InnoDB uses memory in certain places of the code.

The symptom of the issue was that under a certain workloads the memory used by InnoDB kept growing infinitely, until OOM killer kicked in. It looked like a memory leak, but Valgrind wasn’t reporting any leaks and the issue was not reproducible on FreeBSD – it only happened on Linux (see Bug#57480). Especially the latest fact lead us to think that there is something in the InnoDB memory usage pattern that reveals a nasty side of the otherwise good-natured Linux’s memory manager.

It turned out to be an interesting …

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Blowing up in memory

MySQL isn’t too concerned about table handler memory usage – it will allocate row size buffer thrice per each table invocation. There’s a few year old bug discussing UNION memory usage – for each mention in an union one can allocate nearly 200k of unaccounted memory – so a megabyte sized query can consume 7GB of RAM already.

Partitioning though adds even more pain here – it will allocate those three buffers per each partition, so opening a table with 1000 partitions looks like this on memory profile:

Click to enlarge, and you will see 191MB sent to execute a simple single-row fetching query from a table (I filed a bug on this).

There’re multiple real …

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Memory tuning fast paced ETL

Dear Kettle friends,

on occasion we need to support environments where not only a lot of data needs to be processed but also in frequent batches.  For example, a new data file with hundreds of thousands of rows arrives in a folder every few seconds.

In this setting we want to use clustering to use “commodity” computing resources in parallel.  In this blog post I’ll detail how the general architecture would look like and how to tune memory usage in this environment.

Clustering was first created around the end of 2006.  Back then it looked like this.

The master

This is the most important part of our cluster.  It takes care of administrating network configuration and topology.  It also keeps track of the state of dynamically added slave servers.

The master …

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Logs memory pressure

Warning, this may be kernel version specific, albeit this kernel is used by many database systems

Lately I’ve been working on getting more memory used by InnoDB buffer pool – besides obvious things like InnoDB memory tax there were seemingly external factors that were pushing out MySQL into swap (even with swappiness=0). We were working a lot on getting low hanging fruits like scripts that use too much memory, but they seem to be all somewhat gone, but MySQL has way too much memory pressure from outside.

I grabbed my uncache utility to assist with the investigation and started uncaching various bits on two systems, one that had larger buffer pool (60G), which was already being sent to swap, and a conservatively allocated (55G) machine, both 72G boxes. Initial finds were somewhat …

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Tuning MySQL Server Settings

The default configuration file for MySQL is intended not to use many resources, because its a general purpose sort of a configuration file. The default configuration does enough to have MySQL running happily with limited resources and catering to simple queries and small data-sets. The configuration file would most definitely need to be customized and tuned if you intend on using complex queries and when you have good amount of data. Most of the tunings mentioned in this post are applicable to the MyISAM storage engine, I will soon be posting tunings applicable to the Innodb storage engine. Getting started...

Replacing MEMORY storage engine with MySQL Cluster

Many people use the MySQL MEMORY storage engine for applications where they don’t need their data to be highly available or even survive restarts. Where this works best is for applications that are dominated by reads and (obviously) where the data doesn’t need to survive any kinds of problems (or where it can be recovered from another source). Typical applications are :

  • Caching of small tables to reduce the latency of database look-ups.
  • Simple session management (i.e. with no analytics or reporting on the session data).
  • Buffering of multiple updates for batched inserts into tables managed by other MySQL storage engines.  (Note requires additional custom application development).

While great for some applications (at least initially), as the application requirements start …

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More on understanding sort_buffer_size

There have been a few posts by Sheeri and Baron today on the MySQL sort_buffer_size variable. I wanted to add some more information about this buffer, what is impacted when it is changed, and what to do about it?

The first thing you need to know is the sort_buffer_size is a per session buffer. That is this memory is assigned per connection/thread. I’ve seen clients that set this assuming it’s a global buffer Don’t Assume – Per Session Buffers.

Second, internally in the OS usage independently of MySQL, there is a threshold > 256K. From Monty Taylor “if buffer is set to over 256K, it uses mmap() instead of malloc() for memory allocation. Actually – this is a libc malloc thing and is tunable, but …

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vBulletin session table and Hash index in MEMORY Engine

In vBulletin Board System there is session table contains online user information and tracking, in which forum now, what the current URL now, So it is have huge concurrent update statement, By default this table is MEMORY engine because its data not important in case MySQL restart.

I notice early loaded in MySQL and server, So I do full tuning for the server then analyze slow query using

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