Showing entries 21 to 30 of 31
« 10 Newer Entries | 1 Older Entries »
Displaying posts with tag: Managing MySQL (reset)
A security flaw in MySQL authentication. Is your system vulnerable?

A few days ago Sergei Golubchik of Monty Program sent an e-mail to the Open Source Security mailing list informing about a security vulnerability in MySQL authentication system. Under certain circumstances a remote attacker may easily gain access to MySQL database as any user and all they need to know is a valid user name (e.g. root user exists in nearly all installations). The problem has only been addressed in the most recent database versions.

The full details are covered in Sergei’s post linked above. Not all MySQL releases are affected as the cause appears to be related to the build environment and the options used in the binary build process. For instance binaries distributed by Oracle appear to be safe as well as those available from RedHat’s repository.

We encourage you to test this against your database …

[Read more]
How to find MySQL binary logs, error logs, temporary files?

Have you ever spent a lot of time trying to locate where MySQL keeps some file? Here is a quick way to find all this information in one place.

The obvious way is through examining database options in my.cnf or looking at the output of SHOW GLOBAL VARIABLES. But not every path may be explicitly set in the configuration, in such case MySQL may assume some default, while other options may be set using relative paths.

A different approach is listing all files that a running database instance keeps open and searching for the required information there. I find that method by far the fastest whenever I need to learn any of such details.

garfield ~ # lsof -nc mysqld | grep -vE '(\.so(\..*)?$|\.frm|\.MY?|\.ibd|ib_logfile|ibdata|TCP)'
mysqld  30257 mysql  cwd    DIR       253,1      4096 25346049 /data/mysql
mysqld  30257 mysql  rtd    DIR       253,2 …
[Read more]
MySQL, OOM Killer, and everything related

Do the operating systems kill your MySQL instances from time to time? Are some database servers swapping constantly? These are relatively common problems. Why? How to prevent them?

Memory allocation

When a running program needs some additional memory, it can typically allocate it dynamically with malloc() function. It finds an unused continuous block that is at least as large as the requested size, reserves as much as it needs, and returns a pointer to that space. No initialization of the memory contents is performed at the time. When malloc() returns NULL instead of a valid address, it is an information to the calling program that there wasn’t enough memory available and the call has failed to allocate anything. In such cases applications typically take appropriate actions to notify users about the problem and terminate some of their activity or completely shut down.

In Linux it can be a little bit …

[Read more]
Install and configure MySQL on EC2 with RedHat Linux

Recently I had to turn a few EC2 instances into MySQL database servers. The third time I had to do it, I grabbed the list of steps from my previous sessions and just replayed it. Later I thought maybe polishing information a little bit and publishing a step-by-step walkthrough on the blog may help a few people. So here it is.

Before you begin.

For my MySQL instances I used the following:

  • Extra Large, High-Memory, and High-CPU instances. Although the instruction should work on any type of instance.
  • RedHat Enterprise Linux 6.2 64-bit AMI
  • For MySQL data storage, multiple identical EBS devices attached to each instance

The configuration template provided in this post assumes the new MySQL instance only needs InnoDB storage engine.

Grab the packages.

Download the appropriate packages from MySQL web page. You …

[Read more]
An elaborate way to break a MySQL server with XtraBackup

XtraBackup is a great piece of software from Percona, which allows creating (nearly) lock-less MySQL/InnoDB backups. The tool has been around for quite some time and recently even received a major version bump. I have relied on it many times over the years. As it turns out, using it in some configurations may lead to heavy swapping or prevent MySQL from running queries.

So far I only kept complaining about the wrapper script XtraBackup has been distributed with and which was taken from Oracle’s InnoDB Hot Backup. The infamous innobackupex-1.5.1 was neither well written, nor was it even fully compatible with the XtraBackup’s feature set. This sometimes led to weird problems where there should not be any.

This time the problem can appear elsewhere. Mostly when one using the tool does not understand how it works in certain circumstances.

How does XtraBackup work?

In a few short words. XtraBackup …

[Read more]
Why do threads sometimes stay in ‘killed’ state in MySQL?

Have you ever tried to kill a query, but rather than just go away, it remained among the running ones for an extended period of time? Or perhaps you have noticed some threads makred with killed showing up from time to time and not actually dying. What are these zombies? Why does MySQL sometimes seem to fail to terminate queries quickly? Is there any way to force the kill command to actually work instantaneously? This article sheds some light on it.

Threads and connections

MySQL uses a separate thread for each client connection. A query sent to MySQL is handled by a thread that was previously associated with the connection over which the query arrived. Anyone with sufficient privileges can see the list of currently active threads, along with some additional details, by running SHOW PROCESSLIST command, which returns a table-like view where each connection becomes a separate row:

[Read more]
Running out of disk space on MySQL partition? A quick rescue.

No space left on device – this can happen to anyone. Sooner or later you may face the situation where a database either has already or is only minutes away from running out of disk space. What many people do in such cases, they just start looking for semi-random things to remove – perhaps a backup, a few older log files, or pretty much anything that seems redundant. However this means acting under a lot of stress and without much thinking, so it would be great if there was a possibility to avoid that. Often there is. Or what if there isn’t anything to remove?

While xfs is usually the recommended filesystem for a MySQL data partition on Linux, the extended filesystem family continues to be very popular as it is used as default in all major Linux distributions. There is a feature specific to ext3 and ext4 that can help the goal of resolving the full disk situation.

[Read more]
The cost of improved security on a MySQL server

Security-Enhanced Linux or SELinux is a Linux kernel feature that provides a mechanism for supporting access control security policies. It enables a system administrator to create an extra set of rules that define allowed operations for programs even after the standard controls are checked. In other words, SELinux can help improving system security by restricting access of an application to only a few resources it actually needs, which makes it more difficult for an attacker to gain access to the entire system through exploiting any possible vulnerabilities in the application.

However as rarely anything in life is free, is there any price we have to pay to use SELinux on a MySQL server?

I ran a simple MySQL benchmark first with database working in a system with SELinux enabled (SELINUX=enforcing), and then also with the extra security layer entirely disabled (SELINUX=disabled).

The …

[Read more]
Improved script for extracting table from MySQL text dump

A few days ago I showed a quick way to extract one table form a mysqldump output. Here is a more complete version which supports extracting either a full schema or a table from the specified schema. If full schema is being extracted, the script also looks for any associated views and routines.

Usage is simple:
garfield ~ # ./ -f dump.sql -d redmine > redmine.sql
garfield ~ # ./ -f dump.sql -d redmine -t workflows > redmine-workflows.sql

You can grab the script from Downloads page.


# Extracts a schema or a table from a text dump generated by mysqldump or phpMyAdmin
# (c) 2012 Maciej Dobrzanski
# Released under GNU General Public License, version 2

function help()
  cat <<EOF
  Usage: [-h] -f <dump file> -d <database …
[Read more]
Extracting one table from mysqldump or phpMyAdmin backup

Using mysqldump is a quick way to do backups, although usually limited to only smaller databases – perhaps up to a few gigabytes large. It is still a fairly popular solution as majority of databases aren’t even that big. Also phpMyAdmin provides a variant of mysqldump format through its Export function. Everything works well for plain dump and restore, but in certain situations it is necessary to restore only a single table. With all data being in a single text file, it may not be a trivial task. Here is how I deal with the problem.

Rather than editing out parts of the file that I don’t need, I wrote simple one-liners that do that for me. These are not perfect as for example they can’t deal with multiple tables by the same name existing in several different schemas, but that so far never turned out to be a problem. I encourage you to suggest improved ways of doing this, just let me know in the …

[Read more]
Showing entries 21 to 30 of 31
« 10 Newer Entries | 1 Older Entries »