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Displaying posts with tag: query (reset)
Optimal index size for variable text in MySQL

You often see databases with huge dynamic text fields, such as VARCHAR(255), TEXT, or as I recently was allowed to see the blanket use of LONGTEXT (max 4GiB) in order to be invulnerable from all contingencies. Things getting even worse when an index is used over such columns, because hey, there is an index. It makes things fast :-) Okay, jokes aside. Often you can save a lot of space and time, MySQL spends traversing the index when using a proper column type and index size.

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Optimal index size for variable text in MySQL

You often see databases with huge dynamic text fields, such as VARCHAR(255), TEXT, or as I recently was allowed to see the blanket use of LONGTEXT (max 4GiB) in order to be invulnerable from all contingencies. Things getting even worse when an index is used over such columns, because hey, there is an index. It makes things fast :-) Okay, jokes aside. Often you can save a lot of space and time, MySQL spends traversing the index when using a proper column type and index size.

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Can MySQL use primary key values from a secondary index?

In the article about the role of a primary key, I mentioned that a secondary index in an InnoDB table consists not only of the values of its member columns, but also values of the table’s primary key are concatenated to the index. I.e. the primary key contents is part of every other index.

Assuming the following table structure:

CREATE TABLE `bets` (
  `id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL,
  `user_id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL,
  `game_id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL,
...
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  KEY `user_id` (`user_id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB

Here is the visualization:

If MySQL could use in queries these implicitly added values, it would maybe allow to save some space on listing the primary key columns at the end of an index explicitly. Let’s check various cases.

Row filtering

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Joins: inner, outer, left, right

In (My)SQL, join is a means for combining records from two tables into a single set which can be either returned as is or used in another join. In order to perform the operation a join has to define the relationship between records in either table, as well as the way it will evaluate the relationship. The relationship itself is created through a set of conditions that are part of the join and usually are put inside ON clause. The rest is determined through a join type, which can either be an inner join or an outer join.

The SQL clauses that set the respective join type in a query are [INNER] JOIN and {LEFT | RIGHT} [OUTER] JOIN. As you can see the actual keywords INNER and OUTER are optional and can be omitted, however outer joins require specifying the direction – either left or right (more on that later).

Examples of queries using …

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(My)SQL mistakes. Do you use GROUP BY correctly?

Often I see a SQL problem solved incorrectly and I do not mean inefficiently. Simply incorrectly. In many cases the developer remains unaware that they aren’t getting the results they were expecting or even if a result is correct, it is only by chance, for example because the database engine was smart enough to figure out some non-sense in a query. In a few posts I will try to disclose some of the more common problems.

Aggregate with GROUP BY

Unlike many other database systems, MySQL actually permits that an aggregate query returns columns not used in the aggregation (i.e. not listed in GROUP BY clause). It could be considered as flexibility, but in practice this can easily lead to mistakes if a person that designs queries does not understand how they will be executed. For example, what values an aggregate query returns for a column that wasn’t part of the grouping key?

mysql> SELECT user_id, id, …
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Why do threads sometimes stay in ‘killed’ state in MySQL?

Have you ever tried to kill a query, but rather than just go away, it remained among the running ones for an extended period of time? Or perhaps you have noticed some threads makred with killed showing up from time to time and not actually dying. What are these zombies? Why does MySQL sometimes seem to fail to terminate queries quickly? Is there any way to force the kill command to actually work instantaneously? This article sheds some light on it.

Threads and connections

MySQL uses a separate thread for each client connection. A query sent to MySQL is handled by a thread that was previously associated with the connection over which the query arrived. Anyone with sufficient privileges can see the list of currently active threads, along with some additional details, by running SHOW PROCESSLIST command, which returns a table-like view where each connection becomes a separate row:

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Dedicated table for counters

There are a few ways to implement counters. Even though it’s not a complex feature, often I see people having problems around it. This post describes how bad implementation can impact both application and MySQL performance and how to improve it.

A customer asked me for help with performance problem they were facing. I logged into their database and found many client connections waiting for table locks. Almost all threads were stuck on one, small table called hits. What was the reason?

The problem was related to the way they developed a very simple system for counting page views they later used in some reporting. The table structure was:

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE hits\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Table: hits
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `hits` (
`cnt` int(11) NOT NULL
) ENGINE=MyISAM

mysql> SELECT * FROM hits;
+---------+
| cnt     |
+---------+
| 3823273 |
+---------+

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Why a statement can be unsafe when it uses LIMIT clause?

MySQL 5.1 or newer can sometimes start throwing a strange message into an error log. The message states that a query was unsafe for binary logging along with some additional information. What does it mean? Is it a problem?

From time to time you might spot MySQL error log filling with the following warning:

“[Warning] Unsafe statement written to the binary log using statement format since BINLOG_FORMAT = STATEMENT. The statement is unsafe because it uses a LIMIT clause. This is unsafe because the set of rows included cannot be predicted. Statement: DELETE FROM score WHERE user_id = 12345 AND created = ’2012-04-15′ LIMIT 1″

If binary logging is enabled and the log format is set to STATEMENT, MySQL generates such message when it considers that a query is ambiguous and could behave differently each time it executes against the same data set. Such situation could happen, for example, on a …

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Multi Range Read (MRR) in MySQL 5.6 and MariaDB 5.5

This is the second blog post in the series of blog posts leading up to the talk comparing the optimizer enhancements in MySQL 5.6 and MariaDB 5.5. This blog post is aimed at the optimizer enhancement Multi Range Read (MRR). Its available in both MySQL 5.6 and MariaDB 5.5

Now let’s take a look at what this optimization actually is and what benefits it brings.

Multi Range Read

With traditional secondary index lookups, if the columns that are being fetched do not belong to the secondary index definition (and hence covering index optimization is not used), then primary key lookups have to be performed for each secondary key entry fetched. This means that secondary key lookups for column values that do not belong to the secondary index definition can result in a lot of Random I/O. The …

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MySQL Cluster 7.2 GA Released, Delivers 1 BILLION Queries per Minute

70x Higher JOIN Performance, NoSQL Key-Value API & Cross Data Center Sharding with Synchronous Replication 

Oracle is delighted to announce the immediate availability of the production-ready, GA release of MySQL Cluster 7.2, available for download under the GPL, and as part of the commercial MySQL Cluster Carrier Grade Edition, including management tools, product certifications and 24x7 global support.

1 Billion Queries per Minute

MySQL Cluster delivered 1 billion queries per minute (17.6m million queries per second), scaled-out across 8x commodity Intel x86 server nodes, accessed by the NoSQL C++ NDB API.

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