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Displaying posts with tag: sql (reset)
Leader election using MySQL

Being a stateful, centralized datastore, MySQL can serve in negotiating leadership: a mechanism to elect a single service out of multiple services; moreover, a mechanism to promote a new leader should the existing leader cease to function.

What of Zookeeper?

Zookeeper makes for an excellent leader election mechanism. This is one of the most recognized uses for Zookeeper. It has HA via multiple nodes & quorum,  ephemeral nodes, all you need. To achieve similar benefits with MySQL you'd need to use Galera or NDB Cluster; so why not use Zk?

The use case at hand is orchestrator, a multi-node, mostly stateless service that happens to use MySQL as backend datastore. Ir relies on MySQL to exist in backend. It already expects it to be there. If the MySQL server is down, so is the service, …

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Create MySQL Index

Indexes are separate data structures that provide alternate pathways to finding data. They can and do generally speed up the processing of queries and other DML commands, like the INSERT, UPDATE, REPLACE INTO, and DELETE statements. Indexes are also called fast access paths.

In the scope of the InnoDB Database Engine, the MySQL database maintains the integrity of indexes after you create them. The upside of indexes is that they can improve SQL statement performance. The downside is that they impose overhead on every INSERT, UPDATE, REPLACE INTO, and DELETE statement, because the database maintains them by inserting, updating, or deleting items for each related change in the tables that the indexes support.

Indexes have two key properties—usability and visibility. Indexes are both usable and visible by default. That means they …

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MariaDB/MySQL: ON REPLACE triggers

There are several reasons why, generally, in MySQL/MariaDB one should not use REPLACE as a shortcut for SELECT + (UPDATE or INSERT). One of these reasons is the way REPLACE fires triggers. Of course it does not fire UPDATE triggers, and there is no such thing as a REPLACE trigger; DELETE and INSERT triggers are fired instead. What is not obvious is the order in which REPLACE activates triggers (UPDATE: this beavior was undocumented; I documented it here):

  1. BEFORE INSERT;
  2. BEFORE DELETE (if a row is being replaced);
  3. AFTER DELETE (if a row is being replaced);
  4. AFTER INSERT.

Knowing this, we can create …

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Importance of MySQL cache

My test environment is:
Ubuntu 14.04 Trusty Tahr
MySQL Server version: 5.5.44-0ubuntu0.14.04.1 (Ubuntu)

MySQL uses sql cache to store results of queries that have been executed so that when the same query is executed again it retrieves the result data set from the cache instead of getting it again from db. So it is faster data access.

It is by default enabled in MySQL.

This is interesting since there is one question we ought to ask here whether we should use it or disable it or just leave it as it is who cares :).

Ok, moving forward today's session goals are:

  1.     How useful is MySQL cache?
  2.     When to use it and when not to use it?
  3.     What to do if you do not want to use it?


There are some catchy areas here too like not all your queries will be stored in cache. …

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ORDER BY CASE

Sometimes I give parts of a solution to increase the play time to solve a problem. I didn’t anticipate a problem when showing how to perform a sort operation with a CASE statement. It’s a sweet solution when you need to sort something differently than a traditional ascending or descending sort.

I gave my students this ORDER BY clause as an example:

  CASE
    WHEN filter = 'Debit' THEN 1
    WHEN filter = 'Credit' THEN 2
    WHEN filter = 'Total' THEN 3
  END;

It raises the following error in MySQL for students:

ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near 'ORDER BY
  CASE
    WHEN filter = 'Debit' THEN 1
    WHEN filter = 'Credit' THEN' at line 6

It raises the …

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What’s the latest with Hadoop

The Big Data explosion in recent years has created a vast number of new technologies in the area of data processing, storage, and management. One of the biggest names to appear on the scene is Hadoop. In case you need a quick review, Hadoop is a Big Data storage system that takes in large amounts of data from servers and breaks it into smaller, manageable chunks. The technology is complex but at a high level the Hadoop ecosystem essentially takes a “divide and conquer” approach to processing Big Data instead of processing data in tables, as in a relational database like Oracle or MySQL.

 

 

One projection expects …

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Bash Arrays & Oracle

Last week, I wrote about how to use bash arrays and the MySQL database to create unit and integration test scripts. While the MySQL example was nice for some users, there were some others who wanted me to show how to write bash shell scripts for Oracle unit and integration testing. That’s what this blog post does.

If you don’t know much about bash shell, you should start with the prior post to learn about bash arrays, if-statements, and for-loops. In this blog post I only cover how to implement a bash shell script that runs SQL scripts in silent mode and then queries the database in silent mode and writes the output to an external file.

I’ve copied the basic ERD for the example because of a request from a reader. In their opinion it makes cross referencing the …

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Bash Arrays & MySQL

Student questions are always interesting! They get me to think and to write. The question this time is: “How do I write a Bash Shell script to process multiple MySQL script files?” This post builds the following model (courtesy of MySQL Workbench) by using a bash shell script and MySQL script files, but there’s a disclaimer on this post. It shows both insecure and secure approaches and you should avoid the insecure ones.

It seems a quick refresher on how to use arrays in bash shell may be helpful. While it’s essential in a Linux environment, it’s seems not everyone masters the bash shell.

Especially, since I checked my …

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MySQL OCP Exams

Planning out my year, I decided to take the Oracle OCP and MySQL OCP exams. I checked for review books and was pleasantly surprised to find the soon to be released OCP MySQL Database Administrator Exam Guide (Exam 1Z0-883). However, I noticed that the book was actually prepared for the obsolete and discountinued Exams 1Z0-870, 1Z0-873, and 1Z0-874. As it turns out, Steve O’Hearn has informed me that there isn’t a book and that the posting in Amazon.com is in error.

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MySQLdb Manage Columns

Sometimes trying to keep a post short and to the point raises other questions. Clearly, my Python-MySQL Program post over the weekend did raise a question. They were extending the query example and encountered this error:

TypeError: range() integer end argument expected, got tuple.

That should be a straight forward error message because of two things. First, the Python built-in range() function manages a range of numbers. Second, the row returned from a cursor is actually a tuple (from relational algebra), and it may contain non-numeric data like strings and dates.

The reader was trying to dynamically navigate the number of columns in a row by using the …

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