The Write Ahead Log (WAL) is one of the most important components of a database. All the changes to data files are logged in the WAL (called the redo log in InnoDB). This allows to postpone the moment when the modified pages are flushed to disk, still protecting from data losses.…
InnoDB is a general-purpose storage engine that balances high reliability and high performance. It is a transactional storage engine and is fully ACID compliant, as would be expected from any relational database. The durability guarantee provided by InnoDB is made possible by the redo logs.
This article will provide an overview of the redo log subsystem or log subsystem of InnoDB. We will look at the following details:
- The global log system object, which provides access to important data structures and information.
- The mini-transaction (mtr), using which all redo log records are created.
- The global in-memory log buffer (or just log buffer), into which the redo logs are written to from the mini transaction buffer. This log buffer will be periodically flushed to the log file on disk. …
I explored two interesting topics today while learning more about Postgres.
Partial page writes
PostgreSQL’s partial page write protection is configured by the following setting, which defaults to “on”:
When this parameter is on, the PostgreSQL server writes the entire content of each disk page to WAL during the first modification of that page after a checkpoint… Storing the full page image guarantees that the page can be correctly restored, but at a price in increasing the amount of data that must be written to WAL. (Because WAL replay always starts from a checkpoint, it is sufficient to do this during the first change of each page after a checkpoint. Therefore, one way to reduce the cost of full-page writes is to increase the checkpoint interval parameters.)
Trying to reduce the cost of full-page writes by increasing the checkpoint interval highlights a compromise. …[Read more]