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Showing entries 1 to 30 of 65 Next 30 Older Entries

Displaying posts with tag: PBXT (reset)

The MySQL Cluster storage engine
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This is one close to my heart. I’ve recently written on other storage engines: Where are they now: MySQL Storage EnginesThe MERGE storage engine: not dead, just resting…. or forgotten and The MEMORY storage engine. Today, it’s the turn of MySQL Cluster.

Like InnoDB, MySQL Cluster started outside of MySQL. Those of you paying attention at home may notice a correlation between storage engines not written exclusively for MySQL and being at all successful.


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Where are they now: MySQL Storage Engines
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There was once a big hooplah about the MySQL Storage Engine Architecture and how it was easy to just slot in some other method of storage instead of the provided ones. Over the years I’ve repeatedly mentioned how this

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MariaDB 5.5 has deprecated PBXT
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One of the things we (Team MariaDB) talked quite a bit about since we released was PBXT. It was a feature differentiation to MySQL as we shipped another storage engine. It was included in MariaDB 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3; however with our release of MariaDB 5.5, PBXT (docs in the Knowledgebase) has been deprecated and not built by default any longer.

The reason behind it is clear: PBXT is currently not under active development. We still include it in the source releases and if you would like to use it, you just have to

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PBXT "Secrets" at the MySQL Conference
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In my presentation tomorrow at the MySQL Conference I plan to talk about some aspects of PBXT that I have never spoken about before. Here are the details of the presentation:

Update on the PBXT Storage Engine
10:50am Wednesday, 04/13/2011
Location: Ballroom D

Of course nothing about the engine is really a secret, if you are prepared to read the code. But who does that right? I am pretty sure that not even developers of other engines have spent much time (if any) on that.

But really, there are some gems stuck away in those X 1000 lines of code, and I plan to pick out a few tomorrow and show them to you. So don't miss it! :)

My Presentation at the DOAG 2010
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Yesterday I presented PBXT: A Transactional Storage Engine for MySQL at the German Oracle User Group Conference (DOAG) in Nuremberg. A number of people asked for the slides, so here is the link.

The talk was scheduled to be in English, but since I had a German-only audience I presented in German. There was quite a bit of interest, particularly in the Engine Level replication built into PBXT 2.0.

As Ronny observed, this feature can be used effectively for many tasks, including for online backup and maintaining a hot-standby. This all with the addition of a "small" feature:

The Master could initially stream the entire database over to the Slave before actual replication begins. This would also make it extremely easy to setup replication.

A brilliant idea, but a good 3 months work...
PBXT in tpcc-like benchmark
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Finally I was able to run PBXT 1.0.11 pre-GA in tpcc-like workload, apparently there was bug with did not allow me to get the result earlier, and I am happy to see that PBXT team managed it.

For initial runs I took tpcc 100 warehouses ( about 10GB of data) which fully fits into memory (32 GB on server),
and compared 1 and 16 users in MySQL-5.1.46/PBXT and Percona Server / XtraDB - 5.1.45-rel10.2. As workload is totally memory based it will show how PBXT scales in CPU-bond cases on 16 cores systems.

As storage system it was Intel SSD X25-M card.

While full results and config are on Wiki:

there are graphs for 1 user:

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Unqualified COUNT(*) speed PBXT vs InnoDB
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So this is about a SELECT COUNT(*) FROM tblname without a WHERE clause. MyISAM has an optimisation for that since it maintains a rowcount for each table. InnoDB and PBXT can’t do that (at least not easily) because of their multi-versioned nature… different transactions may see a different number of rows for the table table!

So, it’s kinda known but nevertheless often ignored that this operation on InnoDB is costly in terms of time; what InnoDB has to do to figure out the exact number of rows is scan the primary key and just tally. Of course it’s faster if it doesn’t have to read a lot of the blocks from disk (i.e. smaller dataset or a large enough buffer pool).

I was curious about PBXT’s performance on this, and behold it appears to be quite a bit faster! For a table with 50 million rows, PBXT

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PBXT early impressions in production use
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With Paul McCullagh’s PBXT storage engine getting integrated into MariaDB 5.1, it’s never been easier to it out. So we have, on a slave off one of our own production systems which gets lots of inserts from our Zabbix monitoring system.

That’s possibly an ideal usage profile, since PBXT is a log based engine (simplistically stated, it indexes its transaction logs, rather than rewriting data from log into index and indexing that) so it should require less disk I/O than say InnoDB. And that means it should be particularly suited to for instance logging, which have lots of inserts on a sustained basis. Note that for short insert burst you may not see a difference with InnoDB because of caching, but sustain it and then you can notice.

Because PBXT has such

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Slides of the PBXT Presentation
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Here are the slides to my talk yesterday: A Practical Guide to the PBXT Storage Engine.

For anyone who missed my talk, I think it is worth going through the slides, because the are fairly self explanatory.

If there are any questions, please post them as a comment to the blog. I will be glad to answer :)
PBXT at the MySQL User Conference 2010
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At this year's User Conference I have some interesting results to present. But more than anything else, my talk will explain how you can really get the most out of the engine. The design of PBXT makes it flexible, but this provides a lot of options. What tools are available to help you make the right decisions? I will explain.

Every design has trade-offs. How does this work out in practice for PBXT? And how can you take advantage of the strengths of the storage engine? I will explain in:

A Practical Guide to the PBXT Storage Engine
Paul McCullagh
2:00pm - 3:00pm Tuesday, 04/13/2010
Ballroom E

Don't miss it! :)

DBJ – Exotic Storage Engines for MySQL
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In our March DBJ article we talked about some of the storage engines to choose from with MySQL.  With it’s plugin storage engine architecture, you have a range of options.  In our April article we continue to discuss a further selection of storage engines, and what features they offer to the DBA and database architect.

Database Journal – Exotic Storage Engines

Fast reads or fast scans?
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MyISAM is frequently described and marketed as providing fast reads when it really provides fast index and table scans. This is a more narrow use case as fast reads implies great performance for most queries while fast scans implies great performance for single-table queries that are index only or do a full table scan.

MyISAM caches index blocks but not data blocks. There can be a lot of overhead from re-reading data blocks from the OS buffer cache assuming mmap is not used. InnoDB and PBXT are 20X faster than MyISAM for some of my tests. However, I suspect that mutex contention on the key cache is also a factor in the performance differences.

While there are many claims about the great performance of MyISAM. There are not as many examples that explain when it is fast. Alas, the same marketing technique is being repeated with NoSQL to the disadvantage of MySQL.

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PBXT Engine Level replication, works!
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I have been talking about this for a while, now at last I have found the time to get started! Below is a picture from my 2008 MySQL User Conference presentation. It illustrates how engine level replication works, and also shows how this can be ramped up to provide a multi-master HA setup.

What I now have running is the first phase: asynchronous replication, in a master/slave configuration. The way it works is simple. For every slave in the configuration the master PBXT engine starts a thread which reads the transaction log, and transfers modifications to a thread which applies the changes to PBXT tables on the slave.

Where to get it

I have pushed the changes that do this trick to PBXT 2.0 on

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Embedded PBXT is Cool
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Martin Scholl (@zeit_geist) has started a new project based on the PBXT storage engine: EPBXT - Embedded PBXT! In his first blog he describes how you can easily build the latest version: Building Embedded PBXT from bzr.

The interesting thing about this project is that it exposes the "raw" power of the engine. Some basic performance tests show this really is the case.

At the lowest level, PBXT does not impose any format on the data stored in tables and indexes. When running as a MySQL storage engine it uses the MySQL native row and index formats. Theoretically it would be possible to expose this in an embedded API.

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Paul McCullagh answers your questions about PBXT
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Following on from our earlier announcement, Paul McCullagh has responded with the answers to your questions - as well as a few I gathered from other Percona folks, and attendees of OpenSQL Camp. Thank you Paul!

What’s the "ideal" use case for the PBXT engine, and how does it compare in performance?  When would I use PBXT instead of a storage engine like MyISAM, InnoDB or XtraDB?

Unfortunately it is not possible to point to a specific category of applications and say, "PBXT will be better here, so try it".  PBXT is a general purpose transactional storage engine, designed to perform well on a broad range of tasks, much like InnoDB.  However, PBXT's log-based architecture makes performance characteristics different to both MyISAM and InnoDB/XtraDB. Tests show that PBXT's performance is similar to InnoDB but, depending on your

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MariaDB 5.1.39 for Debian, Ubuntu, RHEL/CentOS
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You can now yum (RPM) or apt-get (DEB) MariaDB 5.1.39, courtesy of OurDelta and in close cooperation with Monty Program Ab. Simply follow the info on the CentOS, Debian or Ubuntu pages.

(note: give the mirrors some hours to sync up)

Quick overview

  • See the Release Notes for relevant bugfixes.
  • Drop-in replacement for stock MySQL 5.0 or 5.1 (If you’re coming from stock MySQL, see the MariaDB extras/differences overview).
  • If you are upgrading from 5.0, please review the
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MariaDB 5.1 packages for Debian/Ubuntu
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See the OurDelta blog for details of this release. RHEL/CentOS packages also coming.

MariaDB 5.1 packages for Debian and Ubuntu
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You can now apt-get your way to MariaDB 5.1, courtesy of OurDelta and in close cooperation with Monty Program Ab. To get started, simple follow the info on the Debian and Ubuntu pages.

Quick overview

  • For MariaDB we use different repository directories to ensure that you can’t accidentally upgrade or revert major versions without you explicitly choosing to do so.
  • At this point we have Ubuntu Hardy, Intrepid, Jaunty and Karmic for you, as well as Debian 4 (Lenny). Etch (Debian 4) is waiting on a small fix (thanks to Antony Curtis for helping with that).
  • The package names start with mariadb*,
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Building 5.1.38-maria packages
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We’ve been able to do MySQL 5.1 binary tarballs for a bit now (great working together with Kristian Nielsen of Monty Program), but packages are bit more tricky. Peter has been working on Debian/Ubuntu while I’ve focused on RH/CentOS. The following is from an OurDelta (trial build run) RPM install on CentOS 5 x64:

$ mysql -u root
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1
Server version: 5.1.38-maria-beta1-ourdelta (OurDelta - http://ourdelta.org/)

mysql> CREATE TABLE test.t1 (i int) ENGINE=PBXT;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.10 sec)

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE test.t1\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Table: test.t1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `test.t1` (
`i` int(11) DEFAULT NULL
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO test.t1 values (1);
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PBXT 1.0.09 RC3 implements XA and online backup
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I have just released PBXT 1.0.09 RC3. Besides bug fixes (details in the release notes), this version includes 2 Beta features:
  • XA/2-Phase Commit support
  • Native online backup Driver
XA support has been around MySQL for quite a while, and we all know of it usefulness, for example when sharding. So I was surprised to find a bug in the XA recovery: Bug #47134. Contrary to what is reported, the crash can also occur when using XA with just the default engines installed, so watch out for that one (the good news: the bug fix is simple).

Online backup is really cool! I have heard that it may soon be released in a coming version of 5.4, so lets hope that this is true.

In a little test, I did a backup of a 10GB database in

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PBXT at the OpenSQL Camp hosted by the FrOSCon 2009
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Vladimir will be giving a presentation on PBXT at the FrOSCon 2009 in St. Augustin, near Bonn in Germany tomorrow:

PBXT: Technology trends that affect your Database
Room: C120/OpenSQLCamp
Time: 22 Aug 2009, 18:15 - 18:45

The talks is packed with interesting information about how the design of PBXT handles the major technological challenges of the future, including multiple cores, lots of RAM and solid state drives.

If you are in the area, check it out! :)
PBMS version 0.5.09 has been released.
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A new release of the PrimeBase Media Streaming engine is now available for download at
http://www.blobstreaming.org .

The main focus of this release was to provide the features required to make PBMS production ready and with the addition of transaction support and engine level backup I think it is almost there. The engine does not yet provide engine level replication but it will in a future release.

What's new:
  • PBMS now provides two methods to backup the BLOB repository which are documented here.
  • PBMS now supports transactions independently of the storage engine.
  • There is now a PHP extension for PBMS. Check it out!

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Jeremy's article on PBXT in Linux Magazine
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Jeremy Zawodny of Craigslist wrote a great article on PBXT for Linux Magazine:

PBXT: Your Next MySQL Storage Engine?

Check it out...

Thanks Jeremy :)
PBMS is transactional!
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The PBMS engine now has built in support for transaction so that if you reference or dereference BLOBs during a transaction the changes you made will be committed or rolled back with the transaction. Up until now PBMS had depended on the host engine to handle transactions and inform it what needed to be done in the event of a rollback.

I have implemented transaction support by adding a circular transaction log and transaction cache. The circular transaction log is dynamic and can grow and shrink as required. The transaction records are all small (30 byte) fixed length records so the log doesn’t need to be that large to be able to handle a lot of transactions. A head and tail pointer are maintained to indicate where the head and tail of the circular log is. If the circular log becomes full then the records just overflow and are written to the end of the log. Once the

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PBXT 1.0.08 RC2 Released!
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The second Release Candidate of PBXT, version 1.0.08, has just been released.

As I have mentioned in my previous blogs (here and here), I did a lot to improve performance for this version.

At the same time I am confident that this release is stable as we now have a large number of tests, including functionality, concurrency and crash recovery. But even more important, the number of users of PBXT has increased significantly since the last RC release, and that is the best test for an engine.

So there has never been a better time to try out PBXT! :)

You can download the source code, and selected binaries from here: primebase.org/download.

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At last we have a MySQL Foundation, its called The Open Database Alliance
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Just over a year ago we registered the domain name mysqlfoundation.org in the hopes that Sun/MySQL will actually create such an entity.

My idea was to move the development of the MySQL Community server to the Foundation and make the development fully community orientated. The Foundation would have its own development goals and release schedule. Sun could then pull patches from the Foundation's Community server into the Enterprise server once they had stabilized.

I pitched the idea to several people at Sun back then and over the last year, however, for some reason, the foundation concept just proved impossible to push through.

I believe this would have been a great opportunity for Sun to take the leadership in the community, as the foundation idea dates back to before things really

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Hindsight on a scalable replacement for InnoDB
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A while ago I posted about a comment a Sun performance engineer made about a scalable replacement for InnoDB. At the time, I did not believe it referred to Falcon. In hindsight, it seems even clearer that the Sun performance experts were already working hard on InnoDB itself.

Sun’s engineers have shown that they can produce great results when they really take the problems seriously. And I’m sure that InnoDB’s performance has untapped potential we don’t see right now. However, it does not follow that their work on InnoDB is what was meant by a scalable replacement for InnoDB. Or does it?

General-purpose MVCC transactional storage engines with

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Selectivity threshold for a non-covering index
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Assume you have a table with about 300 000 rows, and an indexed column ‘col1′ with only 9 distinct values. Now you got a query like ’select * from t1 where col1 = const’. The questions are

- when the index is faster to full table scan and vice versa?
- does MySQL use the optimal plan by default?

These questions became very relevant now that QOT got server access and is able to gather various table metrics including selectivity. Besides index selectivity the threshold value obviously depends on the storage engine used, so for me it is also interesting to see how our PBXT engine compares to others in this aspect. Namely to InnoDB - an engine with similar transactional properties and MyISAM - a very fast engine for read-only scenarios.

For the test I took

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PrimeBase Engines at the MySQL Conference 2009
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Barry, Vladimir and I (the entire PrimeBase dev team!) will be presenting next week at the MySQL User Conference and Expo.

We've got lots of cool stuff going on. Barry will tell you how PBMS can store your BLOBs in the clouds, Vladimir will be explaining what makes PBXT so fast, and I will be talking about the past, the present and the future...

Even if that all doesn't interest you, be sure to just drop by to say hi. We're friendly, really! :)

The PBXT Storage Engine: Meeting Future Challenges
Paul McCullagh
3:05pm - 3:50pm Tuesday, 04/21/2009
Ballroom B

BLOB Streaming: Efficient Reliable BLOB Handling
for all

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BLOB storage in the cloud with PBMS
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I am pleased to announce a cloud storage version of the PBMS engine.

What I have created is a version of PBMS that stores the BLOB data in a cloud and when a request for the data comes in the client is sent a redirect to get the BLOB directly from the cloud. The BLOB reference tracking and metadata is handled the same as before in that they are stored in the BLOB record in the repository but the actual BLOB is stored somewhere else.

This has several advantages over storing the BLOB in the repository record:
  • It reduces the disk storage requirement of the database server’s machine.
  • It reduces the bandwidth requirement of the database server’s machine.
  • The beauty of it is that the client application doesn’t need to know anything about

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    Showing entries 1 to 30 of 65 Next 30 Older Entries

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