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Displaying posts with tag: code (reset)
MySQL removes the FRM (7 years after Drizzle did)

The new MySQL 8.0.0 milestone release that was recently announced brings something that has been a looooong time coming: the removal of the FRM file. I was the one who implemented this in Drizzle way back in 2009 (July 28th 2009 according to Brian)- and I may have had a flashback to removing the tentacles of the FRM when reading the MySQL 8.0.0 announcement.

As an idea for how long this has been on the cards, I’ll quote Brian from when we removed it in Drizzle:

We have been talking about getting rid of FRM since around 2003. I remember a drive up to northern Finland with Kaj Arnö, where we spent an hour …

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MySQL Contributions status

This post is an update to the status of various MySQL bugs (some with patches) that I’ve filed over the past couple of years (or that people around me have). I’m not looking at POWER specific ones, as there are these too, but each of these bugs here deal with general correctness of the code base.

Firstly, let’s look at some points I’ve raised:

  • Incorrect locking for global_query_id (bug #72544)
    Raised on May 5th, 2014 on the internals list. As of today, no action (apart from Dimitri verifying the bug back in May 2014). There continues to be locking that perhaps only works by accident around query IDs.Soon, this bug will be two years old.
  • Endian code based on CPU type rather than endian define (bug …
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How We Partitioned Airbnb’s Main Database in Two Weeks

“Scaling = replacing all components of a car while driving it at 100mph”

– Mike Krieger, Instagram Co-founder @ Airbnb OpenAir 2015

Airbnb peak traffic grows at a rate of 3.5x per year, with a seasonal summer peak.

Heading into the 2015 summer travel season, the infrastructure team at Airbnb was hard at work scaling our databases to handle the expected record summer traffic. One particularly impactful project aimed to partition certain tables by application function onto their own database, which typically would require a significant engineering investment in the form of application layer changes, data migration, and robust testing to guarantee data consistency with minimal downtime. In an attempt to save weeks of …

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doing nothing on modern CPUs

Sometimes you don’t want to do anything. This is understandably human, and probably a sign you should either relax or get up and do something.

For processors, you sometimes do actually want to do absolutely nothing. Often this will be while waiting for a lock. You want to do nothing until the lock is free, but you want to be quick about it, you want to start work once that lock is free as soon as possible.

On CPU cores with more than one thread (e.g. hyperthreading on Intel, SMT on POWER) you likely want to let the other threads have all of the resources of the core if you’re sitting there waiting for something.

So, what do you do? On x86 there’s been the PAUSE instruction for a while and on POWER there’s been the SMT priority instructions.

The x86 PAUSE instruction delays execution of the next instruction for some amount …

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Preliminary results from POWER8 optimized CRC32 for MySQL

So, Anton got some useful code working that I could patch into a MySQL server for testing purposes – a POWER8 optimized CRC32 implementation.

I went with a pretty stock MySQL 5.6.22 (one patch) with sysbench preparing a single 2GB table (10,000,000 rows). I then hacked up innochecksum so that it would only do the correct CRC32 (rather than trying each checksum type). Using the standard CRC32 algorithm it took around three seconds to verify all of the checksums. With a POWER8 optimized CRC32: 0.4-0.5 seconds. Useful speed-up!

I then ran sysbench read/write with 16 threads with oltp-table-size=10000 (on the larger table) to see if there would be an improvement in a “real world” workload. I got about 30% better performance on read/write operations!

Using perf to see where CPU was going, CPU time spent doing CRC32 calculations went down from …

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C bitfields considered harmful

In C (and C++) you can specify that a variable should take a specific number of bits of storage by doing “uint32_t foo:4;” rather than just “uint32_t foo”. In this example, the former uses 4 bits while the latter uses 32bits. This can be useful to pack many bit fields together.

Or, that’s what they’d like you to think.

In reality, the C spec allows the compiler to do just about anything it wants with these bitfields – which usually means it’s something you didn’t expect.

For a start, in a struct -e.g. “struct foo { uint32_t foo:4; uint32_t blah; uint32_t blergh:20; }” the compiler could go and combine foo and blergh into a single uint32_t and place it somewhere… or it could not. In this case, sizeof(struct foo) isn’t defined and may vary based on compiler, platform, compiler version, phases of the moon or if you’ve washed your hands recently.

Where …

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volatile considered harmful

While playing with MySQL 5.7.5 on POWER8, I came across a rather interesting bug (74775 – and this is not the only one… I think I have a decent amount of auditing and patching to do now) which made me want to write a bit on memory barriers and the volatile keyword.

Memory barriers are hard.

Like, super hard. It’s the kind of thing that makes you curse hardware designers, probably because they’re not magically solving all your problems for you. Basically, as you get more CPU cores and each of them have caches, it gets more expensive to keep everything in sync. It’s quite obvious that with *ahem* an eventually consistent model, you could save a bunch of time and effort at the expense of shifting some complexity into software.

Those in the MySQL world should recognize this – we’ve been dealing with asynchronous replication for well over a decade …

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Preliminary MySQL Cluster benchmark results on POWER8

Yesterday, I got the basics going for MySQL Cluster on POWER. Today, I finished up a couple more patches to improve performance and ran some benchmarks.

This is on a 3.7Ghz POWER8 machine with non-balanced memory (only 2 of the 4 NUMA nodes have memory, so we have less total memory bandwidth than we could have, plus I’m going to bind ndbmtd to the CPUs in these NUMA nodes)

With a setup of a single replica and two data nodes on the one machine (each bound to a specific NUMA node), running the flexAsync benchmark on MySQL Cluster 7.3.7, I could get around:

  • 3.2 million reads/sec
  • 2.6 million deletes/sec
  • 2.4 million updates/sec
  • 2.4 million inserts/sec.

So, that’s at least in the right ballpark for a first go.

(I’m running this on a big endian host …

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MySQL Cluster on POWER8

So, I’ve written previously on MySQL on POWER, and today is a quick bit of news about MySQL Cluster on POWER – specifically MySQL Cluster 7.3.7.

I ran into three main issues in getting some flexAsync benchmark results. One of them was the fact that I wanted to do this in the middle of all the POWER8 machines I usually use moving buildings (hard to run benchmarks when computers are packed up in boxes on a truck).

The next issue was that ndbmtd (the multi-threaded data node) needs memory barriers for the magic message passing stuff between threads. So, that’s pretty easy (about an eight line patch).

The next issue was in the results from flexAsync, it turns out 32bit math is a bad idea with results from my POWER8 box.

My preliminary performance numbers are fairly promising (actually… what is the world record for a single machine and NDB these days? Single data node?). I think there’s a bit more low …

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Tracing down a problem, finding sloppy code

Daniel was tracking down what appeared to be a networking problem….

  • server reported 113 (No route to host)
  • However, an strace did not reveal the networking stack ever returning that.
  • On the other side, IP packets were actually received.
  • When confronted with mysteries like this, I get suspicious – mainly of (fellow) programmers.
  • I suggested a grep through the source code, which revealed  return -EHOSTUNREACH;
  • Mystery solved, which allowed us to find what was actually going on.


  1. Don’t just believe or presume the supposed origin of an error.
  2. Programmers often take shortcuts that cause grief later. I fully appreciate how the above code came about, but I still think it was wrong. Mapping a “similar” situation onto an existing …
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