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Showing entries 1 to 20

Displaying posts with tag: hack (reset)

Cheating mysqlsandbox to install MariaDB 10.0
+3 Vote Up -0Vote Down

mysqlsandbox is version-aware. The new 5.6 version, for example, requires special care because of the system InnoDB tables or otherwise modified system tables.

At this moment, it will refuse to install MariaDB 10.0 (alpha):

bash$ make_sandbox /tmp/mariadb-10.0.1-linux-x86_64.tar.gz 
unpacking /tmp/mariadb-10.0.1-linux-x86_64.tar.gz
unsupported version 10.0

This is perfectly legitimate, and I have no quarrel with this fact. However, I did want to setup MariaDB 10.0 as a sandbox.

As it turns out mysqlsandbox relies on MySQL package

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Looking for a hack: share data between MySQL sessions
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I'm looking for a way to share data between two MySQL connections/sessions. Obviously tables are the trivial answer, but for reasons of security (possibly insufficient privileges) I wish to avoid that.

The type of data to be passed can vary. Ideally I would be able to pass multiple pieces of information (dates, texts, integers, etc.) around. If impossible, I would do with texts only, and if impossible yet, I could do with a single text (but reasonably long).

There is a way to do so: by writing to the file system (SELECT INTO OUTFILE + LOAD_FILE()). However I wish to avoid it, since writing to files from within MySQL requires creation of a new file each time; no overwrite and no purging; this litters the file system.

So: any other tricks? Is there some way to pass data via

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SQL: selecting top N records per group, another solution
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A while back I presented SQL: selecting top N records per group, a "give me the top 5 countries in each continent" type of query, and which used an external numbers table and a lot of tedious casting.

Here's another solution I came up with (*). Still using GROUP_CONCAT (how else?), but no external table and no casting. The query outputs the largest 5 countries (by surface area) per continent.

SELECT
  Continent,
  Name,
  SurfaceArea,
  Population
FROM
  world.Country,
  (
    SELECT 
      GROUP_CONCAT(top_codes_per_group) AS top_codes
    FROM
      (
        SELECT 
         
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One-way Password Crypting Flaws
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I was talking with a client and the topic of password crypting came up. From my background as a C coder, I have a few criteria to regard a mechanism to be safe. In this case we’ll just discuss things from the perspective of secure storage, and validation in an application.

  • use a digital fingerprint algorithm, not a hash or CRC. A hash is by nature lossy (generates evenly distributed duplicates) and a CRC is intended to identify bit errors in transmitted data, not compare potentially different data.
  • Store/use all of the fingerprint, not just part (otherwise it’s lossy again).
  • SHA1 and its siblings are not ideal for this purpose, but ok. MD5 and that family of “message digests” has been proven flawed long ago, they can be “freaked” to create a
  •   [Read more...]
    Getting rid of huge ibdata file, no dump required, part II
    +1 Vote Up -1Vote Down

    This post continues Getting rid of huge ibdata file, no dump required, part I, where I describe way of converting your single-tablespace InnoDB database into a file-per-table one, without the pain of exporting and importing everything at once.

    In previous part we put aside the issue of foreign keys. We address this issue now.

    What if my InnoDB tables have foreign keys?

    MyISAM does not support them, so you can't just ALTER an InnoDB table to MyISAM and back into InnoDB, and expect everything to work.

    Alas, this calls for additional steps (i.e. additional ALTER commands). However, these still fall well under the concept of "do it one table at a time, then take time to recover your breath

      [Read more...]
    Getting rid of huge ibdata file, no dump required
    +4 Vote Up -1Vote Down

    You have been told (guilty as charged), that the only way to get rid of the huge InnoDB tablespace file (commonly named ibdata1), when moving to innodb_file_per_table, is to do a logical dump of your data, completely erase everything, then import the dump.

    To quickly reiterate, you can only delete the ibdata1 file when no InnoDB tables exist. Delete this file with an existing InnoDB table, even a table in its own tablespace, and nothing ever works anymore.

    The problem with the dump-based solution

    The impact of doing a logical dump is often overwhelming. Well, the dump may be tolerable, but the restore is

      [Read more...]
    Auto caching INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables: seeking input
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    The short version

    I have it all working. It's kind of magic. But there are issues, and I'm not sure it should even exist, and am looking for input.

    The long version

    In Auto caching tables I presented with a hack which allows getting cached or fresh results via a simple SELECT queries.

    The drive for the above hack was INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables. There are two major problems with INFORMATION_SCHEMA:

  • Queries on schema-oriented tables such as TABLES, COLUMNS, STATISTICS, etc. are heavyweight. How heavyweight? Enough to make a lockdown of your database. Enough to crash down your database in some cases.
  • The data is always generated on-the-fly, as you request it. Query
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    Auto caching tables
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    Is there a way to create a caching table, some sort of a materialized view, such that upon selecting from that table, its data is validated/invalidated?

    Hint: yes.

    But to elaborate the point: say I have some table data_table. Can I rewrite all my queries which access data_table to read from some autocache_data_table, but have nothing changed in the query itself? No caveats, no additional WHEREs, and still have that autocache_data_table provide with the correct data, dynamically updated by some rule of our choice?

    And: no crontab, no event scheduler, and no funny triggers on data_table? In such way that invalidation/revalidation occurs upon SELECT?

    Well, yes.

    This post is long, but I suggest

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    More MySQL foreach()
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    In my previous post I've shown several generic use cases for foreach(), a new scripting functionality introduced in common_schema.

    In this part I present DBA's handy syntax for schema and table operations and maintenance.

    Confession: while I love INFORMATION_SCHEMA's power, I just hate writing queries against it. It's just so much typing! Just getting the list of tables in a schema makes for this heavy duty query:

    SELECT TABLE_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES WHERE TABLE_SCHEMA='sakila' AND TABLE_TYPE='BASE TABLE';

    When a join is involved this really becomes a nightmare. I think it's

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    MySQL foreach()
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    A new routine is now available in common_schema, which makes for an easier execution syntax for some operations:

    foreach(collection_to_iterate_over, queries_to_execute_per_iteration_step);

    To illustrate what it can do, consider:

    call foreach('table in sakila', 'ALTER TABLE ${schema}.${table} ENGINE=InnoDB ROW_FORMAT=COMPACT');
    
    call $('schema like shard_%', 'CREATE TABLE ${schema}.messages (id INT)');
    
    call $('2000:2009', 'INSERT IGNORE INTO report (report_year) VALUES (${1})');

    $() stands as a synonym to foreach(). I suspect it should look familiar to web programmers.

    The idea for foreach() was introduced by Giuseppe Maxia during a

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    Self throttling MySQL queries
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    Recap on the problem:

    • A query takes a long time to complete.
    • During this time it makes for a lot of I/O.
    • Query's I/O overloads the db, making for other queries run slow.

    I introduce the notion of self-throttling queries: queries that go to sleep, by themselves, throughout the runtime. The sleep period means the query does not perform I/O at that time, which then means other queries can have their chance to execute.

    I present two approaches:

    • The naive approach: for every 1,000 rows, the query sleep for 1 second
    • The factor approach: for every 1,000 rows, the query sleeps for the amount of time it took to iterate those 1,000 rows (effectively doubling the total runtime of the query).

    Sample query

    We use a simple, single-table

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    MySQL Hacks: Preventing deletion of specific rows
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    Recently, someone emailed me:
    I have a requirement in MYSQL as follows:
    we have a table EMP and we have to restrict the users not delete employees with DEPT_ID = 10. If user executes a DELETE statement without giving any WHERE condition all the rows should be deleted except those with DEPT_ID = 10.

    We are trying to write a BEFORE DELETE trigger but we are not able to get this functionality.

    I have seen your blog where you explained about Using an UDF to Raise Errors from inside MySQL Procedures and/or Triggers. Will it helps me to get this functionality? Could you suggest if we have any other alternatives to do this as well?
    Frankly, I usually refer people




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    MySQL.com hacked?
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    As per amorize.com MySQL.com was hacked and quote “infecting visitors with malware” .. true or false? …

    More reading at krebsonsecurity.com too.

    Timing queries in the 21st century (with LD_PRELOAD and sed)
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    So… Baron blogged about wanting higher precision timers from the mysql binary and that running sed on the binary wasn’t cutting it. However… I am not one to give up that easily!

    This is what LD_PRELOAD was made for! Evil nasty hacks to make your life easier!

    By looking at the mysql.cc source code, I can easily work out how this works… I just have to override two calls! They being sysconf() (we fake how many ticks per second there are) and times() (let’s return a much higher precision number).

    Combined with the sed hack on the binary to change the sprintf call to print out the higher precision number, we have:

    mysql> select count(*) from t1;
    +----------+
    | count(*) |
    +----------+
    |   710720 |
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    Looking for a hack - Passing comment-like info through the binary log
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    I am facing an interesting problem. I need to mark somehow a statement in such a way that the comment is preserved through the binary log.
    I don't have control on how the statement is generated or using which client software. For the sake of example, let's say that I need to mark a CREATE PROCEDURE statement in such a way that, if I extract the query from the binary log and apply it to another server, the information is still available.

    Background

    Normally, I would use a comment. The first thing I would think is
    CREATE PROCEDURE p1(i int) select "hello" /* This is my text */
    But most client libraries will strip it.
    There was



      [Read more...]
    mysql hack - altering huge tables
    +4 Vote Up -2Vote Down
    You have a huge mysql table - maybe 100 GB. And you need to run alter on it - to either add an index, drop an index, add a column or drop a column. If you run the simple mysql "alter table" command, you will end up spending ages to bring the table back into production. Here is a simple hack to get the thing done. The benefit of the hack is that the alter runs quite fast. But since this is a hack
    SQL graphics
    +6 Vote Up -0Vote Down

    SQL is not meant to generate graphics, for sure; but I see some cases where generating non-tabular output can be desirable, as I will show in future posts.

    I’d like to explain the basics of working SQL graphics: it is actually possible to do whatever you like. How?

    Coordinates system

    We’ll now develop a coordinates system using SQL. By producing this, I will have proven my point that anything is possible, and will provide an additional proof of concept.

    To start with generating coordinates, I’ll need a helper table: a numbers table (tinyint_asc, example, with numbers ranging 0..255).

    We’ll strive to produce a 10×10 coordinate matrix. To do this, we’ll self-join the numbers table against itself, and use a helper variable to set the size of the

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    Inspect the Query Cache using MySQL Information Schema Plug-ins
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    A while ago I wrote about MySQL 5.1 information schema plug-ins.

    At the time, I wrote a plug-in to report the contents of the query cache, but for all kinds of reasons, I never found the time to write a decent article about it, nor to release the code.

    I am not sure if I'll ever find the time to write that article, but I just tidied up the code, and installed it in a new MySQL 5.1.26-rc server. It seems to work there, so I put the code up on the web.

    Inside the source file, there's instructions to build





      [Read more...]
    MySQL command line pager & mysmartpager
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    Few days back, Baron re-introduced MySQL's command line pager command and described some cool tricks with maatkit's mk-visual-explain (one of my favorite tools). Soon after reading it, I wished if it was possible to describe regex based (on query) paging. I have written a small hack, christened mysmartpager, that can actually do regex based paging for you. The idea is simple, write a relay that will redirect the output based on to the desired pager. The problem was complex, there was no direct way of getting to know the original query. There are a couple of indirect ways of doing so, but of course with hurdles:
    • Run mysql client with --xml option: This will print the output of each command in xml and the command itself is included in the xml. The downside
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    MySQL Percentile aftermath: Calculating all quantiles
    +0 Vote Up -0Vote Down
    Are you getting fed up yet with my posts on calculating percentiles? Well, I'm sorry but I'm not quite finished.

    Here's a simple, fast method to calculate the specified number of quantiles:

    -- set the number of quantiles, for exmple:
    -- quartiles: 4
    -- deciles: 10
    -- percentiles: 100

    SET @quantiles:=4; -- select quartiles

    -- calculate all quantiles
    --
    --
    SELECT amount AS metric
    , @n DIV (@c DIV @quantiles) AS quantile
    , @n AS N
    FROM sakila.payment
    CROSS JOIN (
    SELECT @n:=0


















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    Showing entries 1 to 20

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