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Showing entries 1 to 30 of 252 Next 30 Older Entries

Displaying posts with tag: Security (reset)

How-to and Performance Impact of SSL-Encrypted Replication Traffic in Galera Cluster for MySQL
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August 7, 2014 By Severalnines

 

Deploying Galera Clusters across WAN environments might lead to concerns around data privacy and security - especially as more organisations are having to comply with national and international regulations. You would not want hackers eavesdropping or intercepting replication traffic. Encrypted replication hides what is sent between the Galera nodes, and makes sure each node is only communicating to the ones it trusts. But how expensive is encryption?

 

In this blog, we will show you how to encrypt the replication traffic between your Galera nodes. We will also look into the performance impact of this

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Some MySQL security tips
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This is a brief list of security tips for MySQL. It is by no means complete.

  • Follow the sudo example. Don't let all you DBAs and Ops have the password for the root account. Have each and every one of them have their own personal super-duper account, with their own personal and private password. This makes it so easy when someone leaves the company. No need to change passwords, just to remove the employee's account.
  • Block root. Either remove it completely or forbid it from logging in. Yes, there's a way hack in MySQL to have a valid account blocked from logging in. One way of making this happen is via common_schema's sql_accounts. Here's how to block root account using common_schema:
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Oracle Critical Patch Update for MySQL
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Oracle has released the Critical Patch Update (CPU) for July 2014. The Oracle MySQL Risk Matrix lists 10 security fixes.

It took me some time to understand the subcomponent names. So here is the list with the full name of each subcomponent:

SubcomponentFull nameSRFTSServer: Full Text SearchSRINFOSCServer: INFORMATION_SCHEMASRCHARServer: Character setsENARCEngine: ArchiveSROPTZRServer: OptimizerSRREPServer: ReplicationSRSPServer: Stored ProcecureENFEDEngine: Federated
I don't think there is anything really important in the list, but it might be a good trigger to update to the latest release.

Upgrading should be easy especially if you're using the APT or






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Log Changes with MySQL 5.7
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Most MySQL-ers quickly learn to move logs out of the data directory. Hopefully the logs are being written to a different disk, on a different controller than where the data is being kept. The horror of finding you database server dead to the world because the single partition used for everything was filled up by the error log should be a thing of the past. MySQL 5.7 will give DBAs better control of log files,

As of 5.7.2, we have gained the ability to control the verbosity of error messages with log_error_verbosity. This system variable controls verbosity in writing error, warning, and note messages to the error log. A value of 1 provides errors only, 2 adds warnings, and 3 adds notes. The default value is 3. And with that with level 3, aborted connections and access-denied errors for new connection attempts are written to the error log.

The good

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On-disk/block-level encryption for MariaDB
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I don’t normally quote The Register, but I was clearing tabs and found this article: 350 DBAs stare blankly when reminded super-users can pinch data. It is an interesting read, telling you that there are many Snowden’s in waiting, possibly even in your organisation. 

From a MariaDB standpoint, you probably already read that column level encryption as well as block level encryption for some storage engines are likely to come to MariaBD 10.1 via a solution by Eperi. However with some recent breaking news, Google is also likely to do this – see this thread

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Securing User Account Details with MySQL
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Keeping user account details secure is always at the forefront of a Database Administrator's mind. However, users want to get up and running as soon as possible without complex login procedures.

You can learn more about this and many other topics in the MySQL for Database Administrator course.

For example, MySQL 5.6.6 introduced a new utility: mysql_config_editor, which makes secure access via MySQL client applications much easier to establish, while still providing a good measure of security.

The mysql_config_editor stores a user's authentication details in an encrypted login file called mylogin.cnf. This login file is readable and writable for the user who invokes the utility, and

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Batch mode and expired passwords
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A series of related discussions triggered by difficulty in setting passwords via scripts using the mysql command-line client when an account has an expired password caused me to look into the interaction between expired passwords and batch mode, and this blog post resulted.  I hope it’s a useful explanation of the behavior and the workaround to those troubled by it, and amplifies the excellent documentation in the user manual.

The ability to flag accounts as having expired passwords first

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Database auditing alternatives for MySQL
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Database auditing is the monitoring of selected actions of database users. It doesn’t protect the database in case privileges are set incorrectly, but it can help the administrator detect mistakes.

Audits are needed for security. You can track data access and be alerted to suspicious activity. Audits are required for data integrity. They are the only way to validate that changes made to data are correct and legal.

There are several regulations that require database audits:

  • Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act of 2002 is a US federal law that regulates how financial data must be handled and protected.
  • Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, otherwise known as PCI-DSS is an international standard developed to protect cardholder’s data.
  • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) enacted by the U.S. Congress
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How To Run privacyIDEA With Apache2 And MySQL On Ubuntu 14.04 LTS
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Howto run privacyIDEA with Apache2 and MySQL On Ubuntu 14.04 LTS

We use the latest 1.0dev0of privacyIDEA. It is available via the python package index or via github.

MySQL 5.7 user table: password_last_changed & password_lifetime
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MySQL 5.7.4 has added two fields to the mysql.user table — password_last_changed, a timestamp and password_lifetime, a small but unsigned integer. Several blogs ago I started to cobble together a password expiration tracking script before these two columns were added. But I could see three ways of tracking expired passwords but none of them were palatable. Todd Farmer was working on a similar idea.

So when you run mysql_upgrade after upgrading to 5.7.4, you will find these two new columns. The password_last_changed will be set to the time you ran the upgrade and password_lifetime will be set to null.

You can set global password lifetime policy in the options file.
[mysqld]


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Heartbleed OpenSSL Bug: Impact on ClusterControl Users & Recommendations on How to Protect your Systems
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April 10, 2014 By Severalnines

 

In the wake of recent concerns and debates raised around the Heartbleed bug, we wanted to update Severalnines ClusterControl users on any impact this bug might have on ClusterControl & associated databases and/or applications.

 

Background

 

If your ClusterControl's web application has been accessible on the internet, then most likely you have also been exposed to the Heartbleed OpenSSL security bug, see: http://heartbleed.com for more details. 

By default, our database deployment script enables SSL encryption for the

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Heartbleed: Separating FAQ From FUD
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If you’ve been following this blog (my colleague, David Busby, posted about it yesterday) or any tech news outlet in the past few days, you’ve probably seen some mention of the “Heartbleed” vulnerability in certain versions of the OpenSSL library.

So what is ‘Heartbleed’, really?

In short, Heartbleed is an information-leak issue. An attacker can exploit this bug to retrieve the contents of a server’s memory without any need for local access. According to the researchers that discovered it, this can be done without leaving any trace of compromise on the system. In other words, if you’re vulnerable, they can steal your keys and you won’t even notice that they’ve gone missing. I use the word

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Redefining –ssl option
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MySQL clients have long had a –ssl option.  Casual users may think specifying this option will cause clients to secure connections using SSL.  That is not the case:

D:\mysql-5.6.13-winx64>bin\mysql -uroot -P3307 --ssl
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.6.13-log MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> \s
--------------
bin\mysql  Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.6.13, for Win64 (x86_64)

Connection id:          2
Current database:
Current user:           root@localhost
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Password expiration policy in MySQL Server 5.7
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I’ve previously noted my wish to have a comprehensive password policy in MySQL Server.  MySQL Server 5.7.4 takes a significant step towards this goal by adding native support for enforcing password lifetime policy.  This complements the validate_password plugin introduced in MySQL Server 5.6, which helps ensure adequate password complexity, and builds on the password expiration mechanism also introduced in MySQL Server 5.6.  This new feature has a

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Notes on the AES encryption in MySQL
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Oracle has improved the AES encryption/decryption functions in MySQL 5.6.17. They improved it a lot and posted a blog which explains all the details.

If you would like to know more about encryption there are two resources I would recommend:
  • The Code Book by Simon Singh. This is about the history of cryptography, but it also includes a lot of information about crypto which is currently in use. This is also a very entertaining read.
  • Crypto 101, a free/opensource book which gives a intro to crypto. The webpage also has a video of the talk on which the book is based.
And if you're going to use the AES encryption


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MySQL 5.6.17 – now with better encryption
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Joro wrote recently about MySQL 5.6.17‘s new support for AES-256 encryption, and it’s a great improvement for people need to encrypt their data at rest.  The new session block_encryption_mode variable controls what variant of AES is used, and for backwards compatibility, the default behavior remains 128-bit key length with ECB block cipher mode.  If you’re happy with that level of encryption, nothing changes – your existing code will work the same on 5.6.17 as it has on earlier versions (note that users of

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Understand and satisfy your AES encryption needs with 5.6.17
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MySQL, starting from 4.0.2, had AES encryption and decryption functions. They are compiled with support for pure independent block by block encryption mode (ECB), using a 128 bit key.

128 bits is plenty enough! And sufficient for everybody! And who would even want to go to the trouble of dealing with initialization vectors? At least that’s what they probably thought when introducing these functions back in 2002 in MySQL 4.0.2.

But I believe in giving people a choice. Read below on why choice is important.

Does (key) size matter ?

The biggest threat that longer keys protect against is brute force attacks. Fast forward 12 years since the introduction of these great SQL functions.  Brute-forcing shorter keys doesn’t sound as impossible as it

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Database security: Why should you review yours?
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Ah database security… the black sheep of topics and something you would really rather not have to deal with right?

I mean surely all the fanfare and paranoia is reserved for the neck beards with tinfoil hats whom live in their own D.I.Y Faraday cage … that must be it … it just has to be?

No, the hard reality is the world is not rose tinted and “they” are out to get you be it for fun or for profit; from defacements to theft compromising your applications, and more importantly your data is big business. For some these acts are nothing short of sheer entertainment for an otherwise boring evening. (I’ll be speaking about this topic next week in much more detail at the Percona Live MySQL Conference and Expo in

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MaxScale has now its own public irc channel
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MaxScale is a Proxy for the MySQL protocol built with a modular architecture. The underlying concept of modules allows to extend the MaxScale proxy services. The current version implements Read Write splitting and Connection Load Balancing. Internally MySQL queries go through a SQL parsing phase. This gives MaxScale great capabilities regarding queries routing.

So if [...]

Recovering MySQL access
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Ever found yourself working on a MySQL server where root’s password is unavailable? It has happened to me a few times, always because the person who set up the DB left the place long ago, and this information was not documented anywhere. If you have root access to the OS, MySQL lets you restart the […] Related posts:
  • Using MySQL Proxy to benchmark query performance By transparently sitting between client and server on each request,...
  • Using MySQL sandbox for testing MySQL Sandbox is a great tool for quickly deploying test...
  • Indexing text columns in MySQL This time, I’m talking about indexes
  •   [Read more...]
    How to get MySQL Critical Patch Updates and Security Alerts notices
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    Beware of bugs in the above code; I have only proved it correct, not tried it.
    Donald Knuth

    Bugs in software are a fact of life. MySQL, as part of Oracle, issues of Critical Patch Updates and Security Alerts notices. You may have seen Daniel van Eeden‘s blog on the January announcement.

    Daniel’s summary:

    For MySQL 5.6 you should upgrade to 5.6.15
    For MySQL 5.5 you should upgrade to 5.5.35
    For MySQL 5.1 you should upgrade to 5.1.73

    But you probably missed the executive summary.

    But how do




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    MySQL in Oracle Critical Patch Update Advisory January 2014
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    Oracle has released the Critical Patch Update (CPU) advisory for January 2014.

    The affected MySQL products are:
    • Oracle MySQL Enterprise Monitor, versions 2.3, 3.0 
    • Oracle MySQL Server, versions 5.1, 5.5, 5.6
    So this means that you should consider updating MySQL. For MySQL Enterprise the updates should be available on My Oracle Support and for the Community version the new versions are on the regular download locations. I guess the official repositories are already updated.

    For MySQL 5.6 you should upgrade to 5.6.15
    For MySQL 5.5 you should upgrade to 5.5.35
    For MySQL 5.1 you should upgrade to 5.1.73

    If you use the MySQL release from your








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    OurSQL Episode 164: Who's Doing What?
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    This week we talk about how to install and use the MariaDB Audit plugin, and what the audit log looks like. Ear Candy presents a gotcha with MySQL and temporary directories, and At the Movies is about using Dynamo for more than just a data store.

    Events
    DB Hangops - every other Wednesday at noon Pacific time

    Upcoming MySQL events (http://www.mysql.com/news-and-events/events/)

    Training
    SkySQL Trainings
    Tungsten University trainings

    read more

    MySQL encryption performance, revisited
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    This is part two on a two-part series on the performance implications of in-flight data encryption with MySQL. In the first part, I focused specifically on the impact of using MySQL’s built-in SSL support with some rather surprising results. Certainly it was expected that query throughput would be lower with SSL than without, but I was rather surprised by the magnitude of the performance hit incurred at connection setup time. These results naturally lended themselves to some further investigation; in particular, I wanted to compare performance differences between MySQL’s built-in SSL encryption facilities and external encryption technologies, such as SSH tunneling. I’ll also be using this post to address a couple of questions posed in the comments on my

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    Auditing MySQL With Mcafee Audit Plugin
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    Send to Kindle

    Audit MySQL isn’t an easy task by default, you can use some technics like tcpdump, write a parser for general log, use MySQL proxy, or you can use some of audit plugins available out there(Mcafee MySQL Audit Plugin or MySQL Enterprise Audit Log Plugin for example).

    On this post I’ll cover the Mcafee MySQL Audit Plugin (https://github.com/mcafee/mysql-audit), on a follow-up post I’ll talk about MySQL Enterprise Audit Log Plugin.

    The installation is easy and require just a few steps, I’m using MySQL 5.5 32 bits, so I’ll download the

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    SSL Performance Overhead in MySQL
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    NOTE: This is part 1 of what will be a two-part series on the performance implications of using in-flight data encryption.

    Some of you may recall my security webinar from back in mid-August; one of the follow-up questions that I was asked was about the performance impact of enabling SSL connections. My answer was 25%, based on some 2011 data that I had seen over on yaSSL’s website, but I included the caveat that it is workload-dependent, because the most expensive part of using SSL is establishing the connection. Not long thereafter, I received a request to conduct some more specific benchmarks surrounding SSL usage in MySQL,

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    MySQL Connect HOL content posted
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    Just a quick post to note that the content from my hands-on lab at MySQL Connect (“MySQL Enterprise Features in Practice”) has been uploaded to the content catalog, and can be found here.  This includes the 36-page lab manual and example commands and programs (mostly in Java; the package includes both compiled and source code).  For those who attended the lab, this is an opportunity to complete the exercises we didn’t get to in the 2.5 hours, and for those who missed it, an opportunity to learn more about the features and capabilities of key MySQL Enterprise products and features such as MySQL Enterprise Audit plugin, MySQL Enterprise Monitor

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    Creating custom rules in MySQL Enterprise Monitor
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    Quite some time ago, I published scripts to implement password policies for MySQL, and promised to show how to expose violations of that policy via MySQL Enterprise Monitor (MEM).  That stalled somewhat with other objectives, but I want to revisit it now that MEM 3.0 is GA.  If you haven’t tried MEM 3.0 yet, consider doing so – it’s quick and easy to set up.

    Many people don’t realize that MEM can be extended to monitor things beyond MySQL Server health, including visibility into application state as

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    Introducing audit_login: simple MySQL login logfile based auditing
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    audit_login is a simple MySQL login auditing plugin, logging any login or login attempt to log file in JSON format.

    It seems that audit plugins are all the rage lately... We've developed out simple plugin a month ago as part of our database securing efforts; by auditing any login or login attempt we could either intercept or later investigate suspicious logins.

    However we quickly realized there is much more to be gathered by this info.

    In very short, you install this plugin onto your MySQL server, and your server starts writing into a text file called audit_login.log entries such as follows:

    {"ts":"2013-09-11
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    News : MariaDB Audit Plugin beta is out
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    By going to the download section of  SkySQL website  some users have noticed “MariaDB Audit Plugin”. This auditing feature for MySQL has been requested by more and more customers. Legal constraints make it mandatory for more and more companies to keep logging information about database access and activity.

    It is very important for the MySQL [...]

    Showing entries 1 to 30 of 252 Next 30 Older Entries

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