Showing entries 1 to 9
Displaying posts with tag: clustering indexes (reset)
An Updated Description of Clustering Keys for TokuDB

Covering indexes can result in orders of magnitude performance improvements for queries. Bradley’s presentation on covering indexes describes what a covering index is, how it can effect performance, and why it works. However, the definition of a covering index can get cumbersome since MySQL limits the number of columns in a key to 16 (32 on MariaDB).

Tokutek introduced multiple clustering indexes into MySQL to address these problems. Zardosht describes the multiple clustering indexes feature and how clustering indexes differ from covering indexes. Zardosht also describes the …

[Read more]
The Effects of Database Heap Storage Choices in MongoDB

William Zola over at MongoDB gave a great talk called “The (Only) Three Reasons for Slow MongoDB Performance”. It reminded me of an interesting characteristic of updates in MongoDB. Because MongoDB’s main data store is a flat file and secondary indexes store offsets into the flat file (as I explain here), if the location of a document changes, corresponding entries in secondary indexes must also change. So, an update to an unindexed field that causes the document to move also causes modifications to every secondary index, which, as William points out, can be expensive. If a document has indexed an array, this problem is exacerbated.

What …

[Read more]
Introducing TokuMX Clustering Indexes for MongoDB

Since introducing TokuMX, we’ve discussed benefits that TokuMX has for existing MongoDB applications that require no changes. In this post, I introduce an extension we’ve made to the indexing API: clustering indexes, a tool that can tremendously improve query performance. If I were to speak to someone about clustering indexes, I think the conversation could go something like this…

What is a Clustering Index?

A clustering index is an index that stores the entire document, not just the defined key.

A common example is …

[Read more]
Looking for MongoDB users to test Fractal Tree Indexing

In my three previous blogs I wrote about our implementation of Fractal Tree Indexes on MongoDB, showing a 10x insertion performance increase, a 268x query performance increase, and a comparison of covered indexes and clustered indexes. The benchmarks show the difference that rich and efficient indexing can make to your MongoDB workload.

It’s one thing for us to benchmark MongoDB + TokuDB and another to measure real world performance. If you are looking for a way to improve the performance or scalability of your MongoDB deployment, we can help …

[Read more]
MongoDB Index Shootout: Covered Indexes vs. Clustered Fractal Tree Indexes

In my two previous blogs I wrote about our implementation of Fractal Tree Indexes on MongoDB, showing a 10x insertion performance increase and a 268x query performance increase. MongoDB’s covered indexes can provide some performance benefits over a regular MongoDB index, as they reduce the amount of IO required to satisfy certain queries.  In essence, when all of the fields you are requesting are present in the index key, then MongoDB does not have to go back to the main storage heap to retrieve anything.  My benchmark results are …

[Read more]
Webinar: Understanding Indexing

Three rules on making indexes around queries to provide good performance

Application performance often depends on how fast a query can respond and query performance almost always depends on good indexing. So one of the quickest and least expensive ways to increase application performance is to optimize the indexes. This talk presents three simple and effective rules on how to construct indexes around queries that result in good performance.

Time: 2PM EDT / 11AM PDT

This webinar is a general discussion applicable to all databases using indexes and is not specific to any particular MySQL® storage engine (e.g., InnoDB, TokuDB®, etc.). The rules are explained using a simple model that does NOT rely on understanding B-trees, Fractal Tree® indexing, …

[Read more]
Are You Forcing MySQL to Do Twice as Many JOINs as Necessary?
Baron Schwartz
This guest post is from our friends at Percona. They’re hosting Percona Live London from October 24-25, 2011. Percona Live is a two day summit with 100% technical sessions led by some of the most established speakers in the MySQL field.

In the London area and interested in attending? We are giving away two free passes in the next few days. Watch our @tokutek twitter feed for a chance to win.

Did you know that the following query actually performs a JOIN? You can’t see it, but it’s there:

SELECT the_day, COUNT(*), SUM(clicks), SUM(cost)
FROM ad_clicks_by_day
WHERE the_day >= …
[Read more]
May the Index be with you!


The summer’s end is rapidly approaching — in the next two weeks or so, most people will be settling back into work. Time to change your mindset, re-evaluate your skills and see if you are ready to go back from the picnic table to the database table.

With this in mind, let’s see how much folks can remember from the recent indexing talks my colleague Zardosht Kasheff gave (O’Reilly Conference, Boston, and SF MySQL Meetups). Markus Winand’s site “Use the Index, Luke!” (not to be confused with …

[Read more]
Covering Indexes: How many indexes do you need?

I’ve recently been blogging about how partitioning is a poor man’s answer to covering indexes. I got the following comment from Jaimie Sirovich:

“There are many environments where you could end up creating N! indices to cover queries for queries against lots of dimensions.”

[Just a note: this is only one of several points he made. I just wanted to dig into this one in some detail. Here goes...]

Although it is, in theory, possible to generate a workload that would take N! indexes, this is not a realistic (or useful) bound (leaving aside that this workload would kill partitioning!). For one thing, it would take N! queries to exercise all those indexes. And the queries would have to include every field in the where clause — as we’ll get into below.

So what is a reasonable bound on the number of covering indexes that …

[Read more]
Showing entries 1 to 9