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Displaying posts with tag: Hardware and Storage (reset)

Is your MySQL Application having Busy IO by Oracle Measures ?
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Preparing Choosing Storage Systems for MySQL talk for Percona Live in Washington,DC I ran into great paper called Sane SAN 2010 by James Morle from Scale Abilities – and Oracle consulting company. It is worth to read for variety of reason yet for this post I wanted to mention what James calls “Busy” Oracle database application when it comes to IO consumption:

It is applications either using Over 10.000 IOs Per second (latency sensitive) or using Over 500MB/s bandwidth (bandwidth sensitive). I wonder how many of MySQL Users


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Virident FlashMAX MLC in tpcc-mysql workload
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As I mentioned in previous post on Virident FlashMAX MLC, beside sysbench benchmark, I also run tpcc-mysql (to compare performance Virident FlashMAX vs Fusion-io ioDrive Duo)

The report with results is there: http://www.percona.com/files/white-papers/virident-mlc-tpcc.pdf

The graphical result for tpcc-mysql 5000W:

My conclusions from this benchmark:

  • Virident FlashMAX provides stability of performance and reveals a denser
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MLC SSD card lifetime and write amplification
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As MLC-based SSD cards are raising popularity, there is also a raising concern how long it can survive. As we know, a MLC NAND module can handle 5,000-10,000 erasing cycles, after which it gets unusable. And obviously the SSD card based on MLC NAND has a limited lifetime. There is a lot of misconceptions and misunderstanding on how long such card can last, so I want to show some calculation to shed a light on this question.

For base I will take Virident FlashMAX M1400 (1.4TB) card. Virident guarantees 15PB (PB as in petabytes) of writes on this card.
15PB sounds impressive, but how many years it corresponds to ? Of course it depends on your workload, and mainly how write intensive it is. But there are some facts that can help you to estimate.

On Linux you can look into the




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Review of Virident FlashMAX MLC cards
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I have been following Virident for a long time (e.g. http://www.mysqlperformanceblog.com/2010/06/15/virident-tachion-new-player-on-flash-pci-e-cards-market/). They have great PCIe Flash cards based on SLC NAND.
I always thought that Virident needed to come up with an MLC card, and I am happy to see they have finally done so.

At Virident’s request, I performed an evaluation of their MLC card to assess how it handles MySQL workload. As I am very satisfied with the results, I wish to share my findings in this post.

But first, I wish to offer an overview of the card.



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Clustrix benchmarks under tpcc-mysql workload
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I’ve been working with Clustrix team for long time on the evaluation of Clustrix product, and this is the report on performance characteristics of Clustrix under tpcc-mysql workload.

I tested tpcc 5000W (~500GB of data in InnoDB) on Clustrix systems with 3, 6, 9-nodes and also, to have base for comparison, ran the same workload on HP ProLiant DL380 G6 powered by Fusion-io card, and on SuperMicro server powered by 7 Intel SSD 320 cards (this server is equal to hardware that Clustrix uses for its nodes).

The full report is available on our page with whitepapers, and in this post I would like to highlight the most interesting points.

The chart with comparison


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Intel 320 SSD write performance – contd.
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I wrote about Intel 320 SSD write performance before, but I was not satisfied with these results.

Somewhat each time on Intel 320 SSD I was getting different write performance, so it made me looking into this with details.

So let’s run experiment as in previous post, this is sysbench fileio random write on different file size, from 10GiB to 140GiB with 10GiB step. I use ext4 filesystem, and I perform filesystem format before increasing filesize.

The results are pretty much as in previous post, the throughput drops as we increase filesize:



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White Paper: Flashcache and MySQL on Virident drive
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Our latest MySQL white paper is Improving Percona Server performance with Flashcache on the Virident tachIOn Drive. (Virident funded the research, but as always, we wrote the report ourselves.)

The conclusion is that Flashcache can be good for read-heavy workloads, but more research is needed to understand its performance characteristics on write-heavy workloads. We explain the details of exactly how good and under what circumstances. We also developed some guidelines for sizing and pricing, to serve as advice for those interested in deploying Flashcache as a way of getting some of the benefit of flash without all of the cost, or the size limitations.

Disaster: MySQL 5.5 Flushing
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We raised topic of problems with flushing in InnoDB several times, some links:

InnoDB Flushing theory and solutions
MySQL 5.5.8 in search of stability

This was not often recurring problem so far, however in my recent experiments, I observe it in very simple sysbench workload on hardware which can be considered as typical nowadays.


Hardware: HP ProLiant DL380 G6, with 72GB of RAM and RAID10 on 8 disks.

I took sysbench multi-tables workload, with 20 tables, 10,000,000 rows each. Total database size ~58GB.
MySQL version: 5.5.16

Initial




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Recovering Linux software RAID, RAID5 Array
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Dealing with MySQL you might need to deal with RAID recovery every so often. Sometimes because of client lacking the proper backup or sometimes because recovering RAID might improve recovery, for example you might get point in time recovery while backup setup only takes you to the point where last binary log was backed up. I wanted for a chance to write instructions for recovery for long time
and finally I had gotten the problems with my ReadyNAS Pro 6 which I was setting up/testing at home for use for backups. I got it doing initial sync while it spotted the problem with one other drive and as such RAID volume failed. ReadyNAS has Debian inside and as you can get root login via SSH it can be recovered as

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Make your file system error resilient
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One of the typical problems I see setting up ext2/3/4 file system is sticking to defaults when it comes to behavior on errors. By default these filesystems are configured to Continue when error (such as IO error or meta data inconsistency) is discovered which can continue spreading corruption. This manifests itself in a worst way when device have some “flapping” problems returning errors every so often as this would cause some random pieces of data and meta data to be lost. Not good for system running mySQL Server. As far as I understand this problem is limited to EXT2/3/4 while over systems like XFS will not continue if consistency problems are discovered.

So how can you check what error behavior mode your file system has ? Run dumpe2fs /dev/sda1 and you will get something like this:

dumpe2fs


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