Showing entries 1 to 8
Displaying posts with tag: joins (reset)
Working Around MySQL Cluster Push Down Limitations Using Subqueries

I worked on an issue last recently where a query was too slow when executed in MySQL Cluster. The issue was that Cluster has some restrictions when it comes to push down conditions.

As an example of this, consider the following query using the employees sample database. The query takes a look at the average salary based on how many years the employee has been with the company. As the latest hire date in the database is in January 2000, the query uses 1 February 2000 as the reference date.

Initially the query performs like (performance is with two data nodes and all nodes in the same virtual machine on a laptop, so the timings are not necessarily representative of a production system, though the improvements should be repeatable):

mysql> SELECT FLOOR(DATEDIFF('2000-02-01', hire_date)/365) AS LengthOfService,
              COUNT(DISTINCT employees.emp_no) AS NoEmployees, AVG(salary) AS AvgSalary
         FROM salaries …
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Many-table joins in MySQL 5.6

I recently worked on an uncommon slow query: less than 100 rows were read and returned, the whole dataset was fitting in memory but the query took several seconds to run. Long story short: the query was a join involving 21 tables, running on MySQL 5.1. But by default MySQL 5.1 is not good at handling joins with such a large number of tables. The good news is that MySQL 5.6 brings welcome improvements.

Isolating the problem

As always with a slow query, finding the execution plan with EXPLAIN is the 1st step to understand where time is spent. Here the plan was very good with almost all joins using the primary key or a unique key, but perhaps the most interesting part was that EXPLAIN was very slow as well. This indicates that the optimizer takes a lot of time finding the optimal execution plan. To double check, we can run SHOW PROFILE:

mysql> set @@profiling = 1;
mysql> SELECT …
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MySQL: Using Views as Performance Improvement Tools

The most basic and most oft-repeated task that a DBA has to accomplish is to look at slow logs and filter out queries that are suboptimal, that consume lots of unnecessary resources and that hence slow down the database server. This post looks at why and how VIEWs can help against such suboptimal operations.

Pushed down JOINs - Webinar

On Thursday, November 04, at 0900PST/1700CET/1600GMT there is a webinar about Pushed Down Joins. This webinar will explain how Pushed Down Joins works, and some performance numbers.
Register here:

NDB Pushed JOINs means query shipping instead of data shipping and it reduces drastically the network hops between the MySQL Server and data nodes, which in turn gives a tremendous performance improvement. For particular queries a 180x improvement has been measured.

Trying out MySQL Push-Down-Join (SPJ) preview

At the 2010 MySQL User Conference, Jonas Oreland presented on the work he’s been doing on improving the performance of joins when using MySQL Cluster – the slides are available for download. While not ready for production systems, a preview version is available for you to try out. The purpose of this blog is to step through  testing an example query as well as presenting the results (SPOILER: In one configuration, I got a 50x speedup!).

SPJ is by no means complete and there are a number of constraints as to which queries benefit (and I’ll give an example of one that didn’t). For details of the current (April 2010) software and limitations, check out …

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Code and slides: Batched Key Access feature preview

At the moment, there are two big features in the works in MySQL optimizer - Subquery optimizations and Batched Key Access. While the former is a part of MySQL 6.0, I wrote about it here in my blog, and so forth, the latter was in nearly stealth mode until a couple of weeks ago.

That's no longer the case:

  • Batched Key Access source code is now published as mysql-6.0-bka-preview tree.
  • Igor Babaev, the author of the feature, gave a talk about Batched Key Access at MySQL User Conference, and the slides are available here.
  • There is now …
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Nested-loops join speedup idea promoted to WL task

The idea how to speed up nested-loops join a little I've mentioned earlier has now been promoted into a worklog entry. It is now known as WL#3724 "Short-Cutting Join Execution: Speeding up star queries" and its text is publicly available at MySQLForge.

At the moment there is only a short description, but hopefully Martin Hansson (the assigned developer) will add more content there.

How to find out if an outer join was converted to inner

After this post I've got a question how one can tell if his outer join was converted to inner. You can find it out by looking at the warning generated by EXPLAIN EXTENDED. If the outer join wasn't converted, you'll see it in the rewritten query in the warning:

mysql> explain extended select * from t1 left join (t2, t3) on t2.a= t1.a;
3 rows in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> show warnings\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Level: Note
   Code: 1003
Message: select `test`.`t1`.`a` AS `a`,`test`.`t2`.`a` AS `a`,`test`.`t3`.`a`
AS `a` from `test`.`t1` left join (`test`.`t2` join `test`.`t3`) on ((`test`.`t2`.
`a` = `test`.`t1`.`a`)) where 1

In this query LEFT JOIN is not converted to inner.

Now let's try a query where outer join will be converted:

mysql> explain extended select * from t1 left join (t2, t3) on …
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Showing entries 1 to 8