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Displaying posts with tag: Databases (reset)

December News from the Mozilla Database Team
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Being the end of the quarter, there has been some planning going on this month about goals for Q1 2013 as well as meeting our goals for Q4 2012. Our biggest goal was to stop using MySQL 5.0, which we have successfully done. We only have one server left on MySQL 5.0, and that has a compatible MySQL 5.1 server waiting for a few developers to get back from their well-deserved vacations to migrate off. In December, we finished upgrading 2 servers to MySQL 5.1.

- Looked at the top 30 Bugzilla queries and started to give optimization tips for MySQL.
- Did our regular purge/defrag of TinderBox PushLog.
- Worked on integrating our datazilla code with chart.io features.
- Helped change


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2012 Mozilla DB Year in Graphs
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I’m not a wizard with infographics, but I can do a few pie charts. I copied the data to the right of the pie charts for those that want to see the numbers. Overall, there are almost 400 databases at Mozilla, in 11 different categories. Here is how each category fares in number of databases:

Here is how each category measures up with regards to database size – clearly, our crash-stats database (which is on Postgres, not MySQL) is the largest:

So here is another pie chart with the relative sizes of the MySQL

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November News From the Mozilla DB Team
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You may have noticed that I stopped posting the “weekly news” from the Mozilla DB Team. After going through the Operations Report Card and applying it to DBAs in OurSQL Podcast numbers 111, 112, 114, 115 and 116, I started thinking that the updates were really more like metrics, and it would better serve my own purposes better to do the updates monthly.

The purposes of doing this type of blog post are:
0) Answering “So what does a DBA do, anyway?”
1) Answering “DBA? At Mozilla? Does Firefox have a database? Why does Mozilla have databases, and what

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Learn MySQL For Free During a Virtual Self-Study Group!
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Back in the summer, I heard about how Gene Babon of Boston’s PHP Meetup Group was brilliantly helping folks learn web programming through PHP Percolate, jQuery Jam and HTML5 Brunch. While he was explaining this, I thought to myself, “this needs to be done for MySQL!”

And so it will be. Starting in just over a month, January 1st, 2013, the first MySQL Marinate group will happen. We already have over 50 people signed up for the event itself, and as of right now there are 85 people in the meetup group itself, with

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Open Source Database Schemas
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I am seeking the help of the community. I am working on an evaluation project about schema design in open source applications. While it’s possible for me to download the software of many popular apps, and install the software and then do a mysqldump, it takes time. Quite often there is no simple schema.sql file, but a process for creating the schema. If you are using an open source project, would you take a moment and run the following.

$ mysqldump -u[user] -p --skip-lock-tables --no-data --databases [schema]  > [schema].sql

This will only dump the table definitions, and should therefore contain nothing company specific. I have at this time:

  • WordPress
  • Drupal
  • Mediawiki
  • OS Commerce
  • Joomla
  • EzPublish
  • PHPWiki

I am open to any projects, and it doesn’t matter if the

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About Master/Master Replication, from Books
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It started with a tweet from a coworker asking if I can recommend reading for making a master/master MySQL server. There are plenty of caveats about writing to only one master at a time, and that master/master is not write scaling, but I think I tackled it pretty well in the MySQL Administrator’s Bible. It is not a very long topic, so I made a PDF of the relevant pages. High Performance MySQL also has a few pages that I would recommend reading, and the third edition has similar information as the Bible, although it goes into more detail about why you might use master/master replication

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database musings (“deep thoughts”)
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I have a soft spot for hierarchical databases.  My first database-related job was programming in M/Mumps.  I know the standard history of databases says that hierarchical databases are a relic of the past, and that, thanks to Codd, relational databases solve many of the problems of hierarchical (and other kinds of) databases.  I like relational databases – I was an Oracle DBA, I’ve worked with DB2, Sybase, Postgres, mSQL, others, and now MySQL.  I really like InnoDB.  However, I am occasionally sad that hierachical databases seem a thing of the past.
Or are they?  Yesterday I had a thought that hierarchical databases are much more widely used than relational databases.  In fact, maybe every single computer has a hierarchical database that is used by every computer user, whether they have database software installed or not.  The file system! 

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Converting Timezone-Specific Times in MySQL
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Twice last week, a developer wanted to convert the existing datetime values in a database to UTC. The datetime values were the default for the server, which was the US/Pacific time zone, which is subject to Daylight Saving Time changes. Both developers for both applications wanted to convert all the times to UTC, so there would not be any changes due to Daylight Saving Time, and asked me for an easy query to know which times should be changed by adding 7 hours and which times should have 8 hours added to them.

The good news is that MySQL has some built-in functionality to make this easier. You may know about the CONVERT_TZ() function in MySQL, and that you can use it in a query to convert times like this:

mysql> SELECT

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MySQL Enterprise Monitor, my super powers and my life
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Last week I had an enlightening experience. It may sound strange, but I found I have super powers... let me explain.

I had a meeting with a big customer of mine to show the value of MySQL Enterprise and Cluster CGE and to share with them the latest and greatest features available in our commercial offerings. During the discussion I said: "Imagine if your MySQL database has a problem at 3pm. Thanks to My Oracle Support and MySQL Enterprise Monitor you can quickly resolve your issues and restore the service".

MySQL Enterprise MonitorWell, this is exactly what happened at 2.50pm... I missed the prophecy by just 10m and found I



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MySQL 5.6, GTID and performance_schema
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Not much to add really to the bug I’ve filed here: bug#67159.

Again this GTID stuff looks good, but seems to prevent changes in the configuration of performance_schema, which I think is not appropriate, especially as P_S now has lots of extra goodies and after 5.6 will surely have even more.

MySQL-5.6, GTID and binlogs on slaves
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Not much to add really to the bug I’ve filed here: bug#67099.

I personally can think of some very nasty consequences of applying this on the slaves I manage, and the reason I’m posting the bug is that while I guess this is too late to fix in 5.6 as it’s effectively a new feature, I’m sure many sites may bump into this and be somewhat disappointed if they want to use the new GTID feature and have several slaves.  Hence, if the fix/feature has to go into MySQL 5.7 then I hope it goes in sooner rather than later. We will see.

More GTID troubles in MySQL 5.6
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A colleague, Kris, commented recently on a recent find I made on 5.6.7-rc1 which while not the end of the world does seem to severely limit the use of the new GTID features, or if nothing else make it a pain to use.

Today I found another related issue, when trying to check the syntax of one of the MySQL commands. That’s now reported as bug#67073.

All of these are sort of edge cases but do make 5.6 look a little rough round the edges, when the rest of the product is actually really good and a great improvement from The MySQL 5.5 GA version that everyone uses.  That’s really a shame.

I did report the Original problem as SR 3-6270525721 : MySQL 5.6.7-rc1, grants, replication and

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Controlled failover simplicity with MySQL
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As part of a recent engagement, I described the relative products to manage a MySQL pair (i.e. an Active/Passive MySQL masters configuration). This included the steps to undertake a controlled failover for supporting software maintenance using manual procedures. The upcoming Effective MySQL: Replication Techniques in Depth book details each step and all conditions to review over a dozen pages. While the steps are straightforward and generally well known, scripting this for your environment takes a certain amount of work to ensure your information is correct, and application connectivity loss is kept to a minimum.

In Continuent Tungsten (which I have just been reviewing these past few weeks), I achieved the same result with a single command.

$ echo "switch" |
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Joining the Continuent Team
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This month I have joined the team at Continuent. No stranger to the MySQL ecosystem, Continuent provides replication and clustering technology for managing data between MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, Vertica and a growing list of data stores.

I have known many of the team at Continuent for some time, and will again be joining Giuseppe Maxia from our days at MySQL Inc/AB starting back in 2006.

I am looking forward to taking the hard work out of administration of MySQL systems with the simplicity of Continuent Tungsten, simplifying tasks including automatic failover, multi-master and geo cluster redundancy to a single command.

Catch me speaking at the upcoming

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Checking /proc/pid/numa_maps can be dangerous for mysql client connections
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I’ve blogged before about the way to use numactl to start up mysqld, and thus to try to better spread the memory usage on larger memory servers. This came from an article by Jeremy Cole and is fine. I recently had some issues with mysqld seeming to run out of memory on a box which appeared to have plenty free, so it seemed like a good idea to adapt a minutely collector script I run to include the numa_maps output so that I could see if the failed memory was related to this. So far so good.

Many of the clients that connect to the database servers I manage have a very short connect timeout, typically 2 seconds. In a normal network and under

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Looking for MySQL 4.1
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I had need today to download a version of MySQL 4.1 to test something. The MySQL Developer Zone archives no longer provides any software before 5.0.

While this may have long reached EOL and is no longer support, customers still do run this version of MySQL.

Anybody that can help out with binaries (on several OS’s), it would be appreciated.

SPOF Internet
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SPOF (i.e. Single Point of Failure) is the bane for technologists. Avoiding SPOF generally requires redundancy, and redundancy has a cost, often more then a business is prepared to pay. In the database field, I see this regularly and advise clients on how to improve availability and potential avoid disasters that can affect their business.

Today, at approximately 10:30am, the Con Edison work crew in front of my home (digging a 5″ deep trench down the road), severed multiple Time Warner Cable fibre connections. ($#&* and the lack of ownership to correct timely is another story). No Internet, no ability to work actively with clients (which I was doing), etc, etc.

As an individual that works from home, I have recognized this SPOF and have redundancy in place. That is, a Verizon MiFi HotSpot, normally used for travel, but a backup in times of Internet downtime to my

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MySQL client password security
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In case you missed it, MySQL 5.6.6, also known as Milestone 9, was recently released. I have yet to install this, however just one part of the MySQL 5.6.6 Release Notes makes placing installing and testing high on my TODO list.

Updated 20 Sep, 2012. Be sure to also read Todd’s post Understanding mysql_config_editor’s security aspects about a more in-depth and accurate description of this new feature. In summary, “It makes secure access via MySQL client applications easier to use”.

That is the reported improvements in password management. From the release notes:

Security Improvements

These security improvements were implemented:



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When is a crashing MySQL bug not a bug?
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Answer: When Oracle acknowledges the bug in 5.5.25 (to the owner only), corrects the bug in 5.5.27 (to the owner only), yet hides all information of its existence.

Recently a colleague and good friend discovered a bug in MySQL 5.5 replication that would crash MySQL. This was initially reported as Bug #65740, and after a lot of back and forth, a reproducible test case was found. Excellent work on the part of my colleague to spend the time to clearly identify the specific conditions. I remember looking at this initial thread in detail for an UPDATE statement using variables combined with an –ignore-database configuration option.

For no explanation by Oracle, this bug was subsequently marked as private (after I originally viewed the thread publicly), corrected, and the corrected bug is not

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Recent Presentations in Cali, Colombia
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On July 4 I gave two presentations at the OTN Tour Day, and on July 5 I have three presentations at the MySQL Training Days. This was my 3rd visit to Colombia and it was great to see a receptive audience. Thanks to Robin for organizing the events in 2010, 2011 and 2012.

You can download all presentations from the provided links.

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Video interviews at OTN Colombia
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The following are short interviews from the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) event in Cali, Colombia. One with myself and another with Sheeri Cabral.


These Videos are sourced from OTN Tour Latin America 2012.

NIST::NVD::Store::SQLite3 1.00.00
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It’s been released. Use this with NIST::NVD 1.00.00 and you will be able to perform immediate look-ups of CVE and CWE data given a CPE URN. For instance:

cjac@foxtrot:/usr/src/git/f5/NIST-NVD-Store-SQLite3$ perl Makefile.PL ; make ; make test ; cjac@foxtrot:/usr/src/git/f5/NIST-NVD-Store-SQLite3$ perl -MNIST::NVD::Query -MData::Dumper -e '
$q = NIST::NVD::Query->new(store    => q{SQLite3},database => q{t/data/nvdcve-2.0.db});
$cve_list = $q->cve_for_cpe( cpe => q{cpe:/a:microsoft:ie:7.0.5730.11} );
print Data::Dumper::Dumper { cve_list => $cve_list, first_cvss => $q->cve( cve_id => $cve_list->[0] )->{q{vuln:cvss}} }
'
$VAR1 = {
          'cve_list' => [
                          'CVE-2002-2435',
                          'CVE-2010-5071'
                        ],
          'first_cvss' => {
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New security fixes for MySQL reported
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6 new security fixes for Oracle MySQL have been detailed in the most current Oracle Critical Patch Update (CPU).

These are:

  • CVE-2012-1735 (5.5.23 and earlier)
  • CVE-2012-0540 (5.1.62 and earlier, 5.5.23 and earlier)
  • CVE-2012-1757 (5.5.23 and earlier )
  • CVE-2012-1756 (5.5.23 and earlier)
  • CVE-2012-1734 (5.1.62 and earlier, 5.5.23 and earlier )
  • CVE-2012-1689 (5.1.62 and earlier, 5.5.22 and earlier )

Oracle strongly recommends that customers apply CPU fixes as soon as possible. Unfortunately there is no easy description for MySQL users what that really entails. There is a reference to Critical Patch Update July 2012 Patch Delivery Document for Oracle Sun Products Suite My Oracle Support Note 1446033.1, however all the

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I will be speaking at Percona Live New York
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Percona is back for a second New York Percona Live Conference. As the resident New York MySQL Expert, I will again be presenting. My session will be on MySQL Backup and Recovery Essentials.

You can only present so much in one hour, and this presentation just touches on the highlights of what is possible. More detailed information about the right backup and recovery strategy and associated tools is available in my current book Effective MySQL: Backup and Recovery.

Encrypting your MySQL backups and more
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Assuming you have a backup and recovery strategy in place, how secure is your data? Does a hacker need to obtain access to your production system bypassing all the appropriate security protection you have in place, or just the unencrypted data on the backup server?

Encryption with zNcrypt

The following steps demonstrate how I setup a mysqldump encrypted backup with zNcrypt, a product from Gazzang. You can request a free trial evaluation of the software from http://gazzang.com/request-a-trial. I asked for a AWS EC2 instance, and was able to provide my bootstrap instructions for OS and MySQL installation. Following installation and configuration, the first step is to verify the zNcrypt process is running:

$ sudo ezncrypt-service status
  ezncrypt |
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What compression do you use?
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The following is an evaluation of various compression utilities that I tested when reviewing the various options for MySQL backup strategies. The overall winner in performance was pigz, a parallel implementation of gzip. If you use gzip today as most organizations do, this one change will improve your backup compression times.

Details of the test:

  • The database is 5.4GB of data
  • mysqldump produces a backup file of 2.9GB
  • The server is an AWS t1.xlarge with a dedicated EBS volume for backups

The following testing was performed to compare the time and % compression savings of various available open source products. This was not an exhaustive test with multiple iterations and different types of data files.

Compression
Utility Compression Time
(sec) Decompression Time
(sec) New Size
(% Saving) lzo



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NIST::NVD 1.00.00
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I’m leaving myself some room for bug fixes. It works for us in house. I would love to help others to give it a try. especially those who could benefit from making nearly immediately answered queries to the NIST’s NVD database.

The code in this release cannot by itself track the feed from the feds in real time. The nvd entry loader needs a little bit of love in the area of record merging before this starts working. It’s on my TODO list.

I’m sorry for the outage of git.colliertech.org. I’ll get that back up here shortly. In the meantime, feel free to grab it from this location while the CPAN indexes and processes my submission.

http://www.colliertech.org/federal/NIST/NIST-NVD-1.00.00.tar.bz2

don’t forget to check the cryptographic signature:

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Recent Presentations Buenos Aires MySQL/NoSQL/Cloud Conference
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The first annual Latin America MySQL/NoSQL/Cloud Conference was held in Buenos Aires Argentina from June 26-28. Kudos to Santiago Lertora from Binlogic who had the vision for the conference in his country and made it happen. I look forward to the second annual event.

My first presentation was “Improving Performance with Better Indexes”. This presentation details the six steps to SQL performance analysis, Capture, Identify, Confirm, Analyze, Optimize and Verify. An explanation of MySQL EXPLAIN, and working examples to create indexes and better covering indexes in several examples are provided. A production example of a 13 table join is used to detail how covering indexes and partial column indexes can make a dramatic improvement in performance.

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MySQL vs. SQL Server
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A new company often means new responsibilities and learning new ways of doing things. For a tech guy, it often means picking up a new framework or maybe if you are a glutton for punishment, a new language. I recently switched OSes, languages, and databases as a DBA/DB Developer. This was quite a massive shift for me. I went from the stable, enterprise database, SQL Server, to the little engine that could, MySQL. Before the switch, I would stew over the fact that SQL Server lacked features in comparison to Oracle or Postgres, but now I realize that there are far better things to worry about (such as non-blocking backups). I just wanted to go over some of the differences I found.

  • MySQL is a collection of binaries that manipulate data files. It is not a monolithic application that persists its data to disk, but instead it
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    Upcoming MySQL Connect Presentations
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    The MySQL Connect 2012 conference event being held in San Francisco on Sep 29-30 has a long list of quality MySQL speakers including myself. I will be giving 2 presentations on:

    CON8322 – Lessons from Managing 500+ MySQL Instances

    In this presentation, learn about the issues of managing a large number of instances of MySQL, supporting 50 billion SQL statements per day. Topics covered:
    • The need for monitoring and instrumentation
    • How to automate installations, upgrades, and deployments
    • Issues with MySQL’s Replication feature with 300 slaves per master
    • Traffic minimization techniques
    • Creating high





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