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ProxySQL Tutorial - part 1
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The first tutorial is a high level overview of how to install ProxySQL , and how to quickly configure and use it.



Install and compile ProxySQL


Installing and compiling ProxySQL is very straightforward:1) download and uncompress the source code from GitHub2) compile

Note:The following packages are needed in order to compile:- libssl and ibssl-dev (Ubuntu) or openssl and openssl-devel (Centos)- libglib2 and libglib2.0-dev (Ubuntu) or glib2 and glib2-devel (Centos)- libmysqlclient and libmysqlclient-dev (Ubuntu) or mysql-libs and mysql-devel (Centos)

Below an example:

vegaicm@voyager:~/proxysql$ wget -q https://github.com/renecannao/proxysql/archive/master.zip -O proxysql.zipvegaicm@voyager:~/proxysql$ unzip -q proxysql.zipvegaicm@voyager:~/proxysql$ cd proxysql-master/src/vegaicm@voyager:~/proxysql/proxysql-master/src$ make...gcc -o proxysql obj/main.o obj/free_pkts.o obj/mem.o obj/debug.o obj/sqlite3.o obj/fundadb_hash.o obj/global_variables.o obj/mysql_connpool.o obj/mysql_protocol.o obj/mysql_handler.o obj/network.o obj/queue.o obj/threads.o obj/admin_sqlite.o -I../include -lpthread -ggdb -rdynamic -lcrypto `mysql_config --libs_r --cflags` `pkg-config --libs --cflags gthread-2.0` -DDEBUG -lm







Configure ProxySQL to run against your local MySQL instance

ProxySQL is under active development, evolving day by day thus some of the options and switches may change from version to version.To simplify the configuration and to make it easy to try, ProxySQL is shipped with an interactive script that should help its configuration : proxysql_interactive_config.pl

Launch the script, and it will guide you step by step through a basic configuration.The script will propose several default values, making the configuration very simple.Following is an example, where we are going to use many of the defaults and configure only server and usernames:


vegaicm@voyager:~/proxysql/proxysql-master/src$ ./proxysql_interactive_config.pl


Interactive script to configure ProxySQL,High Performance and High Availability proxy for MySQL




Generic options:- core_dump_file_size : maximum size of core dump in case of crash- stack_size : stack size allocated for each thread- error_log : log file for error messages (not implemented yet)

   core_dump_file_size [0]:    stack_size (65536-8388608) [524288]:


Clients can communicate with ProxySQL through 2 different sockets:- proxy_mysql_port : TCP socket for MySQL traffic : default is 6033- mysql_socket : Unix Domanin socket : default is /tmp/proxysql.sock

   proxy_mysql_port [6033]:    mysql_socket [/tmp/proxysql.sock]:


ProxySQL uses an admin interface for runtime configuration and to export statistics.Such interface uses the MySQL protocol and can be used by any MySQL client.Options:- proxy_admin_port : TCP socket for Administration : default is proxy_mysql_port-1 (6032)- proxy_admin_user : username for authentication ( this is not a mysql user )- proxy_admin_password : password for the user specified in proxy_admin_user

   proxy_admin_port [6032]:    proxy_admin_user [admin]:    proxy_admin_password [admin]:


ProxySQL allows to cache SELECT statements executed by the application.Query cache is configured through:- mysql_query_cache_partitions : defines the number of partitions, reducing contention- mysql_query_cache_default_timeout : defaults TTL for queries without explicit TTL- mysql_query_cache_size : total amount of memory allocable for query cache

   mysql_query_cache_partitions (1-64) [16]:    mysql_query_cache_default_timeout (0-315360000) [1]: 30    mysql_query_cache_size (1048576-10737418240) [67108864]:


Several options define the network behaviour of ProxySQL:- mysql_threads : defines how many threads will process MySQL traffic- mysql_poll_timeout : poll() timeout (millisecond)- mysql_max_query_size : maximum length of a query to be analyzed- mysql_max_resultset_size : maximum size of resultset for caching and buffering- net_buffer_size : internal buffer for network I/O- backlog : listen() backlog

   mysql_threads (1-128) [8]: 4    mysql_poll_timeout (100-1000000) [10000]:    mysql_max_query_size (1-16777210) [1048576]:    mysql_max_resultset_size (1-1073741824) [1048576]:    net_buffer_size (1024-16777216) [8192]:    backlog (50-10000) [2000]:


ProxySQL implements an internal connection pool. Configurable with:- mysql_connection_pool_enabled : enables the connection pool if set to 1- mysql_wait_timeout : timeout to drop unused connections

   mysql_connection_pool_enabled (0-1) [1]:    mysql_wait_timeout (1-31536000) [28800]:



ProxySQL connects to various mysqld instances that form the backend.- mysql_servers : list of mysqld servers in the format host:port;host:port;...

   Hostname[:port] of backend#1 : 127.0.0.1:3306    Would you like to add another backend server (Y-N) [N]: N


Few options specify how to connect to the backend:- mysql_usage_user : user used by ProxySQL to connect to the backend to verify its status- mysql_usage_password : password for user specified in mysql_usage_user

Note:the user specified in mysql_usage_user needs only USAGE privilege, and you can create the user with GRANT USAGE

   mysql_usage_user [proxy]:    mysql_usage_password [proxy]:

Note (again!):The user specified in mysql_usage_user needs only USAGE privilegeYou can create the user with GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'proxy'@'<proxysqlip>' IDENTIFIED BY 'proxy';



ProxySQL authenticates clients' connections, and then uses the same credentials to connect to the backends.ProxySQL needs to know clients' usernames and passwords because a single client connection can generate multiple connections to the backend.

   Username for user#1 : testuser    Password for user msandbox : testpassword    Would you like to add another user (Y-N) [N]: N

Basic configuration completed!


If you compiled ProxySQL with debug information (enabled by default) you can enable debug verbosity.

   Would you like to enable debug verbosity? (Y-N) [N]: N



## ProxySQL config file## Generated using proxysql_interactive_config.pl#[global]core_dump_file_size=0debug=0stack_size=524288proxy_admin_port=6032proxy_admin_user=adminproxy_admin_password=adminnet_buffer_size=8192backlog=2000

[mysql]mysql_threads=4proxy_mysql_port=6033mysql_socket=/tmp/proxysql.sockmysql_query_cache_partitions=16mysql_query_cache_default_timeout=30mysql_query_cache_size=67108864mysql_poll_timeout=10000mysql_max_query_size=1048576mysql_max_resultset_size=1048576mysql_connection_pool_enabled=1mysql_wait_timeout=28800mysql_servers=127.0.0.1:3306mysql_usage_user=proxymysql_usage_password=proxy[mysql users]testuser=testpassword

[debug]debug_generic=0debug_net=0debug_pkt_array=0debug_memory=0debug_mysql_com=0debug_mysql_connection=0debug_mysql_server=0debug_admin=0debug_mysql_auth=0


Would you like to write a configuration file? (Y-N) [Y]:    config filename [proxysql.cnf]:  

Configuration completed!Quit


Note on debugging: do not enable debug at this stage. I will write an article just on this topic.


Create users in your local MySQL instance to allow ProxySQL to connect:

GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'proxy'@'127.0.0.1' IDENTIFIED BY 'proxy';CREATE USER 'testuser'@'127.0.0.1' IDENTIFIED BY 'testpassword';GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON test.* TO 'testuser'@'127.0.0.1';GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON sbtest.* TO 'testuser'@'127.0.0.1';


Run ProxySQL

Starting ProxySQL is very straightforward, just execute the following in your prompt :

vegaicm@voyager:~/proxysql/proxysql-master/src$ ./proxysql

Note that currently it has some intentional limitations due the fact that is under development:- no daemon support, only foreground;- no logging facilities included, only stdout;- the working directory must be writable .


Connect to MySQL through ProxySQL

Let’s make a simple test to connect to ProxySQL using tcp port 6033 :


vegaicm@voyager:~$ mysql -u testuser -ptestpassword -h 127.0.0.1 -P6033Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.Your MySQL connection id is 3055020864Server version: 5.1.30 (Ubuntu)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or itsaffiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respectiveowners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> SHOW GRANTS;+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+| Grants for testuser@127.0.0.1                                                                                   |+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+| GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'testuser'@'127.0.0.1' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*9F69E47E519D9CA02116BF5796684F7D0D45F8FA' || GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `test`.* TO 'testuser'@'127.0.0.1'                                                      || GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `sbtest`.* TO 'testuser'@'127.0.0.1'                                                    |+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> mysql> use test;Reading table information for completion of table and column namesYou can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

mysql> CREATE TABLE proxytest (id INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY) ENGINE=INNODB;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO proxytest VALUES(NULL);Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO proxytest SELECT NULL FROM proxytest;Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)Records: 1  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> INSERT INTO proxytest SELECT NULL FROM proxytest;Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.00 sec)Records: 2  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT * FROM proxytest;+----+| id |+----+|  1 ||  2 ||  3 ||  4 |+----+4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> \qBye

Now let’s try to connect to ProxySQL through socket /tmp/proxysql.sock :

vegaicm@voyager:~$ mysql -u testuser -ptestpassword -S /tmp/proxysql.sock testReading table information for completion of table and column namesYou can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.Your MySQL connection id is 3054492480Server version: 5.1.30 (Ubuntu)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or itsaffiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respectiveowners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> SELECT * FROM proxytest;+----+| id |+----+|  1 ||  2 ||  3 ||  4 |+----+4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> \qBye


Simple queries using ProxySQL seems to give us the results we were expecting.Using mysqlslap we can quickly test how ProxySQL performs compared to MySQL running the very simple query “SELECT * FROM proxytest”. We will run MySQL with and without MySQL query cache enabled.


vegaicm@voyager:~$ for i in `seq 1 20000` ; do echo "SELECT * FROM proxytest;" ; done > /tmp/select_proxytest.sql

vegaicm@voyager:~$ mysql -u root -e "SET GLOBAL query_cache_size=0;" ; mysqlslap -u testuser -ptestpassword --create-schema=test -c 8,16,32,64,128,256 -q /tmp/select_proxytest.sql -S /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock | grep "Average number of seconds"    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 3.284 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 6.591 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 13.530 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 29.546 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 66.452 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 138.742 seconds


vegaicm@voyager:~$ mysql -u root -e "SET GLOBAL query_cache_size=1024*1024;" ; mysqlslap -u testuser -ptestpassword --create-schema=test -c 8,16,32,64,128,256 -q /tmp/select_proxytest.sql -S /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock | grep "Average number of seconds"    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 1.632 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 4.528 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 7.533 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 17.182 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 41.967 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 91.434 seconds



vegaicm@voyager:~$ mysqlslap -u testuser -ptestpassword --create-schema=test -c 8,16,32,64,128,256 -q /tmp/select_proxytest.sql -S /tmp/proxysql.sock | grep "Average number of seconds"    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 1.135 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 1.908 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 4.575 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 9.451 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 18.843 seconds    Average number of seconds to run all queries: 36.143 seconds





A picture is worth a thousands words:






Build a small cluster to run ProxySQL

While it is possible to use ProxySQL on a setup with a single MySQL server, to use many of its features (load balancing, queries routing, read/write split) it is required to have several MySQL backends, configured in various architectures.To build a small cluster with several MySQL backends we will create a simple replication setup using MySQL Sandbox .

If you are not familiar with MySQL Sandbox, it is “a tool for installing one or more MySQL servers in isolation, without affecting other servers” that you can download from https://launchpad.net/mysql-sandbox .

vegaicm@voyager:~$ make_replication_sandbox mysql_binaries/mysql-5.5.34-linux2.6-i686.tar.gz
installing and starting master
installing slave 1
installing slave 2
starting slave 1
.... sandbox server started
starting slave 2
.... sandbox server started
initializing slave 1
initializing slave 2
replication directory installed in $HOME/sandboxes/rsandbox_mysql-5_5_34



Now that the cluster is installed, verify on which ports are listening the various mysqld processes:

vegaicm@voyager:~$ cd sandboxes/rsandbox_mysql-5_5_34
vegaicm@voyager:~/sandboxes/rsandbox_mysql-5_5_34$ cat default_connection.json
{
"master":
   {
       "host":     "127.0.0.1",
       "port":     "23389",
       "socket":   "/tmp/mysql_sandbox23389.sock",
       "username": "msandbox@127.%",
       "password": "msandbox"
   }
,
"node1":
   {
       "host":     "127.0.0.1",
       "port":     "23390",
       "socket":   "/tmp/mysql_sandbox23390.sock",
       "username": "msandbox@127.%",
       "password": "msandbox"
   }
,
"node2":
   {
       "host":     "127.0.0.1",
       "port":     "23391",
       "socket":   "/tmp/mysql_sandbox23391.sock",
       "username": "msandbox@127.%",
       "password": "msandbox"
   }
}The mysqld processes are listening on port 23389 (master) and 23390 and 23391 (slaves).

Important note:Unless configured differently (details in another tutorial), ProxySQL considers a writable master any server that is configured with read_only=OFF . Because MySQL Sandbox doesn’t configure the slaves with read_only=ON , ProxySQL will consider any node as a master : that is obviously incorrect and needs to be addressed before starting ProxySQL.

Change read_only setting on the two slaves:

vegaicm@voyager:~$ mysql -u msandbox -pmsandbox -h 127.0.0.1 -P23390 -e "SET GLOBAL read_only=ON"vegaicm@voyager:~$ mysql -u msandbox -pmsandbox -h 127.0.0.1 -P23391 -e "SET GLOBAL read_only=ON"




Reconfigure ProxySQL to use the test cluster

It is possible to reconfigure ProxySQL without restarting it, but it is a long process that will be explained in another tutorial . For now, in order to reconfigure proxysql , you should :- stop proxysql- delete the proxysql.db* files- edit proxysql.cnf or relaunch proxysql_interactive_config.pl

Note: proxysql.db* files are the database files that ProxySQL uses to store configurations after processing proxysql.cnf , and the configuration stored in these files have higher priority over the same configuration values stored in proxysql.cnf . That is the reason why you should delete proxysql.db* files if you edit proxysql.cnf , or the new settings in proxysql.cnf won’t have any effect.In the next article we will describe the content of these database files and how to reconfigure ProxySQL without deleting any file and without restarting the process.

For semplicity I will rerun proxysql_interactive_config.pl and highlight the few differences:

vegaicm@voyager:~/proxysql/proxysql-master/src$ ./proxysql^Cvegaicm@voyager:~/proxysql/proxysql-master/src$ rm -f proxysql.db*vegaicm@voyager:~/proxysql/proxysql-master/src$ rm proxysql.cnfvegaicm@voyager:~/proxysql/proxysql-master/src$ ./proxysql_interactive_config.pl


Interactive script to configure ProxySQL,High Performance and High Availability proxy for MySQL…...

  Hostname[:port] of backend#1 : 127.0.0.1:23389   Would you like to add another backend server (Y-N) [N]: Y   Hostname[:port] of backend#2 : 127.0.0.1:23390   Would you like to add another backend server (Y-N) [N]: y   Hostname[:port] of backend#3 : 127.0.0.1:23391   Would you like to add another backend server (Y-N) [N]: N

……

  mysql_usage_user [proxy]: msandbox   mysql_usage_password [proxy]: msandbox

Note (again!):The user specified in mysql_usage_user needs only USAGE privilegeYou can create the user with GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'msandbox'@'<proxysqlip>' IDENTIFIED BY 'msandbox';



ProxySQL authenticates clients' connections, and then uses the same credentials to connect to the backends.ProxySQL needs to know clients' usernames and passwords because a single client connection can generate multiple connections to the backend.

  Username for user#1 : msandbox   Password for user msandbox : msandbox   Would you like to add another user (Y-N) [N]: N

……


Your new proxysql.cnf should look like this .








Connect to the various MySQL backends through ProxySQL

Restart ProxySQL :

vegaicm@voyager:~/proxysql/proxysql-master/src$ ./proxysql


Once again , let’s make a simple test to connect to ProxySQL :


vegaicm@voyager:~$ mysql -u msandbox -pmsandbox -h 127.0.0.1 -P6033Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.Your MySQL connection id is 3048201024Server version: 5.1.30 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or itsaffiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respectiveowners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> SELECT 1;+---+| 1 |+---+| 1 |+---+1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> \q

All looks good so far. But to which backend are we connected?Let make a simple test:

vegaicm@voyager:~$ mysql -u msandbox -pmsandbox -h 127.0.0.1 -P6033 -e "SELECT @@hostname, @@port"+------------+--------+| @@hostname | @@port |+------------+--------+| voyager    |  23390 |+------------+--------+vegaicm@voyager:~$ mysql -u msandbox -pmsandbox -h 127.0.0.1 -P6033 -e "SELECT @@hostname, @@port"+------------+--------+| @@hostname | @@port |+------------+--------+| voyager    |  23391 |+------------+--------+vegaicm@voyager:~$ mysql -u msandbox -pmsandbox -h 127.0.0.1 -P6033 -e "SELECT @@hostname, @@port"+------------+--------+| @@hostname | @@port |+------------+--------+| voyager    |  23390 |+------------+--------+vegaicm@voyager:~$ mysql -u msandbox -pmsandbox -h 127.0.0.1 -P6033 -e "SELECT @@hostname, @@port"+------------+--------+| @@hostname | @@port |+------------+--------+| voyager    |  23389 |+------------+--------+

It seems we are randomly connected to one of the backends.

Let make a different test now: we will send the same identical query over a very small period of time:

vegaicm@voyager:~$ for i in `seq 1 50` ; do mysql -u msandbox -pmsandbox -B -N -h 127.0.0.1 -P6033 -e "SELECT @@hostname, @@port" ; done | sort | uniq -c     50 voyager    23389vegaicm@voyager:~$ for i in `seq 1 50` ; do mysql -u msandbox -pmsandbox -B -N -h 127.0.0.1 -P6033 -e "SELECT @@hostname, @@port" ; done | sort | uniq -c     50 voyager    23390vegaicm@voyager:~$ for i in `seq 1 50` ; do mysql -u msandbox -pmsandbox -B -N -h 127.0.0.1 -P6033 -e "SELECT @@hostname, @@port" ; done | sort | uniq -c     50 voyager    23390vegaicm@voyager:~$ for i in `seq 1 50` ; do mysql -u msandbox -pmsandbox -B -N -h 127.0.0.1 -P6033 -e "SELECT @@hostname, @@port" ; done | sort | uniq -c     50 voyager    23389vegaicm@voyager:~$ for i in `seq 1 50` ; do mysql -u msandbox -pmsandbox -B -N -h 127.0.0.1 -P6033 -e "SELECT @@hostname, @@port" ; done | sort | uniq -c     50 voyager    23389vegaicm@voyager:~$ for i in `seq 1 50` ; do mysql -u msandbox -pmsandbox -B -N -h 127.0.0.1 -P6033 -e "SELECT @@hostname, @@port" ; done | sort | uniq -c     50 voyager    23391

Caching in action!Because ProxySQL is configured to cache every SELECT statement for 1 second, if we send several identical queries on a short period of time the queries won’t be executed by the MySQL backend but resolved directly from ProxySQL internal cache!



Running some simple load test using ProxySQL

We will use sysbench to run some simple load test.Note that the following results should not be considered a meaningful benchmark as all the servers run on the same physical box (my laptop) and as such they don’t really scale-out. To scale-out and improve performance you need to add more servers.Therefore, you should consider the following only as an example of how to use proxysql.


First, prepare the table:

vegaicm@voyager:~$ sysbench --test=oltp --oltp-table-size=10000 --mysql-user=msandbox --mysql-password=msandbox --mysql-db=test --mysql-host=127.0.0.1 --mysql-port=6033 --oltp-table-size=10000 preparesysbench 0.4.12:  multi-threaded system evaluation benchmark

No DB drivers specified, using mysqlCreating table 'sbtest'...Creating 10000 records in table 'sbtest'...


Before running benchmarks note that :

1) performance of ProxySQL are affected by the fact that the TCP protocol is really expensive;2) by default, sysbench uses the MySQL binary protocol ( that means it uses prepared statements ), but ProxySQL doesn’t recognize (yet?) this protocol, therefore can’t boost performance if prepared statements are used. Note that the majority of the applications do not use prepared statements, therefore ProxySQL is meant to boost the performance of the majority of the applications out there.With this in mind, we will run some read only workload using Unix domain socket and disabling prepared statement in sysbench.

Running sysbench directly against mysqld without ProxySQL:vegaicm@voyager:~$ sysbench --num-threads=16 --max-requests=0 --max-time=30 --test=oltp --oltp-table-size=10000 --mysql-user=msandbox --mysql-password=msandbox --mysql-db=test --mysql-socket=/tmp/mysql_sandbox23389.sock --oltp-table-size=10000 --oltp-read-only --db-ps-mode=disable run | grep 'transactions:'    transactions:                        39824  (1327.14 per sec.)

And with ProxySQL:vegaicm@voyager:~$ sysbench --num-threads=16 --max-requests=0 --max-time=30 --test=oltp --oltp-table-size=10000 --mysql-user=msandbox --mysql-password=msandbox --mysql-db=test --mysql-socket=/tmp/proxysql.sock --oltp-table-size=10000 --oltp-read-only --db-ps-mode=disable run | grep 'transactions:'    transactions:                        80899  (2696.14 per sec.)




You can easily note how ProxySQL improves performance!




To summarize in a graph:


Testing read/write workload

What about using ProxySQL in a read/write workload?

sysbench with a read/write workload without proxysql:

vegaicm@voyager:~$ sysbench --num-threads=16 --max-requests=0 --max-time=30 --test=oltp --oltp-table-size=10000 --mysql-user=msandbox --mysql-password=msandbox --mysql-db=test --mysql-socket=/tmp/mysql_sandbox23389.sock --oltp-table-size=10000 --db-ps-mode=disable run | grep 'transactions:'    transactions:                        13010  (433.45 per sec.)

sysbench with a read/write workload with proxysql:

vegaicm@voyager:~$ sysbench --num-threads=16 --max-requests=0 --max-time=30 --test=oltp --oltp-table-size=10000 --mysql-user=msandbox --mysql-password=msandbox --mysql-db=test --mysql-socket=/tmp/proxysql.sock --oltp-table-size=10000 --db-ps-mode=disable run | grep 'transactions:'    transactions:                        14696  (487.60 per sec.)




The above shows that proxysql boosts performance also in read/write workload, but what it is more important is that transparently connects the clients to the correct servers, whatever is the master or a slave.

As mentioned previously, the above results are only an example of how to use proxysql : in another article we will run real benchmark adding more servers and highlighting how ProxySQL is able to scale-out the performance of your application without code changes.

In the next article we will discuss some of the internals of ProxySQL, and how to configure them.

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