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Showing entries 1 to 10 of 17 7 Older Entries

Displaying posts with tag: primary (reset)

How to deal with MySQL deadlocks
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A deadlock in MySQL happens when two or more transactions mutually hold and request for locks, creating a cycle of dependencies. In a transaction system, deadlocks are a fact of life and not completely avoidable. InnoDB automatically detects transaction deadlocks, rollbacks a transaction immediately and returns an error. It uses a metric to pick the easiest transaction to rollback. Though an occasional deadlock is not something to worry about, frequent occurrences call for attention.

Before MySQL 5.6, only the latest deadlock can be reviewed using SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS command. But with Percona Toolkit’s pt-deadlock-logger you can have deadlock information retrieved from SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS at a given interval and saved to a file or table for late

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Percona XtraDB Cluster: How to run a 2-node cluster on a single server
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I reckon there’s little sense in running 2 or more Percona XtraDB Cluster (PXC) nodes in a single physical server other than for educational and testing purposes – but doing so is still useful in those cases. The most popular way of achieving this seems to be with server virtualization, such as making use of Vagrant boxes. But in the same way you can have multiple instances of MySQL running in parallel on the OS level in the form of concurrent mysqld processes, so too can you have multiple Percona XtraDB Cluster nodes. And the way to achieve this is precisely the same: using dedicated datadirs and different ports for each node.

 

Which ports?

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Innodb transaction history often hides dangerous ‘debt’
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In many write-intensive workloads Innodb/XtraDB storage engines you may see hidden and dangerous “debt” being accumulated – unpurged transaction “history” which if not kept in check over time will cause serve performance regression or will take all free space and cause an outage. Let’s talk about where it comes from and what can you do to avoid running into the trouble.

Technical Background: InnoDB is an MVCC engine which means it keeps multiple versions of the rows in the database, and when rows are deleted or updated they are not immediately removed from the database but kept for some time – until they can be removed. For a majority of OLTP workloads they can be removed seconds after the change actually took place. In some cases though they might need to be kept for a long period of time

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Percona Toolkit for MySQL with MySQL-SSL Connections
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I recently had a client ask me how to use Percona Toolkit tools with an SSL connection to MySQL (MySQL-SSL). SSL connections aren’t widely used in MySQL due to most installations being within an internal network. Still, there are cases where you could be accessing MySQL over public internet or even over a public “private” network (ex: WAN between two colo datacenters). In order to keep packet sniffers at bay, the connection to MySQL should be encrypted.

If you are connecting to Amazon RDS from home or office (ie: not within the AWS network) you better be encrypted!

As there is already a MySQL Performance Blog post on how to setup MySQL SSL

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How to close POODLE SSLv3 security flaw (CVE-2014-3566)
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Padding Oracle On Downgraded Legacy Encryption

First off, the naming “convention” as of late for security issues has been terrible. The newest vulnerability (CVE­-2014-3566) is nicknamed POODLE, which at least is an acronym and as per the header above has some meaning.

The summary of this issue is that it is much the same as the earlier B.E.A.S.T (Browser Exploit Against SSL TLS), however there’s no known mitigation method in this case – other than entirely

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Recover orphaned InnoDB partition tablespaces in MySQL
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A few months back, Michael wrote about reconnecting orphaned *.ibd files using MySQL 5.6. I will show you the same procedure, this time for partitioned tables. An InnoDB partition is also a self-contained tablespace in itself so you can use the same method described in the previous post.

To begin with, I have an example table with a few orphaned partitions and we will reconnect each partition one by one to the original table.

mysql [localhost] {msandbox} (recovery) > SHOW CREATE TABLE t1 G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Table: t1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `t1` (
[...]
KEY `h_date` (`h_date`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
/*!50100 PARTITION BY RANGE (year(h_date))
(PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN
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How to avoid hash collisions when using MySQL’s CRC32 function
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Percona Toolkit’s  pt-table-checksum performs an online replication consistency check by executing checksum queries on the master, which produces different results on replicas that are inconsistent with the master – and the tool pt-table-sync synchronizes data efficiently between MySQL tables.

The tools by default use the CRC32. Other good choices include MD5 and SHA1. If you have installed the FNV_64 user-defined function, pt-table-sync will detect it and prefer to use it, because it is much faster than the built-ins. You can also use

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MySQL compression: Compressed and Uncompressed data size
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MySQL has information_schema.tables that contain information such as “data_length” or “avg_row_length.” Documentation on this table however is quite poor, making an assumption that those fields are self explanatory – they are not when it comes to tables that employ compression. And this is where inconsistency is born. Lets take a look at the same table containing some highly compressible data using different storage engines that support MySQL compression:

TokuDB:

mysql> select * from information_schema.tables where table_schema='test' G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
TABLE_CATALOG: def
TABLE_SCHEMA: test
TABLE_NAME: comp
TABLE_TYPE: BASE TABLE
ENGINE: TokuDB
VERSION: 10
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MySQL Replication: ‘Got fatal error 1236′ causes and cures
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MySQL replication is a core process for maintaining multiple copies of data – and replication is a very important aspect in database administration. In order to synchronize data between master and slaves you need to make sure that data transfers smoothly, and to do so you need to act promptly regarding replication errors to continue data synchronization. Here on the Percona Support team, we often help customers with replication broken-related issues. In this post I’ll highlight the top most critical

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MySQL ring replication: Why it is a bad option
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I’ve recently worked with customers using replication rings with 4+ servers; several servers accepting writes. The idea behind this design is always the same: by having multiple servers, you get high availability and by having multiple writer nodes, you get write scalability. Alas, this is simply not true. Here is why.

High Availability

Having several servers is a necessary condition to have high availability, but it’s far from sufficient. What happens if for instance C suddenly disappears?

  • The replication
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Showing entries 1 to 10 of 17 7 Older Entries

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