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Showing entries 1 to 20

Displaying posts with tag: RDS (reset)

Howto automate MySQL slow query analysis with amazon RDS
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If you’ve used relational databases for more than ten minutes, I hope you’ve heard of slow queries. Those are those pesky little gremlins that are slowing down your startup, and preventing scalability you so desperately need. Luckily there’s a solution. What I’ve found is if I send a report to developers every week, it keeps […]
Connect to MySQL in the Amazon Public Cloud
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Troubleshooting MySQL on Amazon can be a real test of patience. There are quite a few different things to watch out for in terms of connectivity & networking. Sometimes a checklist can help. Join 16,000 others and follow Sean Hull on twitter @hullsean. Here’s my exhaustive list of things that can block you. 1. Be […]
RDS Migration from 5.5 to 5.6 with mysqldump
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Amazon recently announced support for 5.6, unfortunately, direct upgrade from lower versions is not yet supported. On a recent migration work – running mysqldump flat out would’ve meant 6+hrs of downtime. How did we cut it off to 1h45m? Simple, run dump per table and pipe it directly to the new 5.6 instance in parallel using Percona Server’s mysqldump utility to take advantage of –innodb-optimize-keys.

Here’s the base script we used – of course, YMMV and make sure to optimize the destination instance as well!

#!/bin/bash
# export-run.sh
# This is the wrapper script which builds up the list of tables to split into $parallel parts and calls export-tables.sh

parallel=6
dblist="db1 db2 db3"
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Will AWS plans for PostgreSQL RDS help it finally pick up?
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"Amazon to add Postgres to its most-favored database list" says GigaOM:
http://gigaom.com/2013/11/12/amazon-to-add-postgres-to-its-most-favored-database-list/
"To many this is no-brainer. Amazon wants to support the databases that its developer audiences want to use. This is simply a  case of Amazon responding to user demand and oh-by-the-way making its cloud infrastructure more attractive to a specific target audience. Some say Postgres has gained traction since Oracle’s acquisition of MySQL via its Sun buyout a few years back."

Some people I know said "yea, the writing was on the wall...". Well, was it?? Really? 
AWS finally got the time to "plan" for supporting Postgres now? After supporting MySQL, Oracle


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An unexplained connection experience
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The “Too many connections” problem is a common issue with applications using excessive permissions (and those that grant said global permissions). MySQL will always grant a user with SUPER privileges access to a DB to investigate the problem with a SHOW PROCESSLIST and where you can check the limits. I however found the following.

mysql> show global variables like 'max_connections';
+-----------------+-------+
| Variable_name   | Value |
+-----------------+-------+
| max_connections | 2000  |
+-----------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> show global status like 'max%';
+----------------------+-------+
| Variable_name        | Value |
+----------------------+-------+
| Max_used_connections | 6637  |
+----------------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

How can the max_used_connection exceed max_connections? This is

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Additional DB objects in AWS RDS
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To expand on Jervin’s Default RDS Account Privileges, RDS for MySQL provides a number of routines and triggers defined the the ‘mysql’ meta schema. These help in various tasks because the SUPER privilege is not provided.

SELECT routine_schema,routine_name
FROM information_schema.routines;
+----------------+-----------------------------------+
| routine_schema | routine_name                      |
+----------------+-----------------------------------+
| mysql          | rds_collect_global_status_history |
| mysql          | rds_disable_gsh_collector         |
| mysql          | rds_disable_gsh_rotation          |
| mysql          | rds_enable_gsh_collector          |
| mysql          | rds_enable_gsh_rotation           |
| mysql          | rds_kill
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Default RDS Account Privileges
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I was searching looking for the PRIVILEGES that comes with the primary MySQL account on RDS, but it looks like this is not documented anywhere nor blogged about yet. So for the sake of other users, here it is:

GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP, RELOAD, PROCESS, REFERENCES, INDEX, ALTER, SHOW DATABASES, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, LOCK TABLES, EXECUTE, REPLICATION CLIENT, CREATE VIEW, SHOW VIEW, CREATE ROUTINE, ALTER ROUTINE, CREATE USER, EVENT, TRIGGER ON *.* TO 'revin'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx' WITH GRANT OPTION

In case you ask, for what, I was looking for what privileges I can grant other users via the primary account.

New Tungsten Replicator w/ MySQL 5.6 & Amazon RDS support
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Tungsten Replicator 2.0.7 enables new MySQL versions, provides better support for multi-master and parallel replication, and improves setup of advanced topologies. In the MySQL area, we have added the ability to replicate from MySQL into Amazon RDS instances, as well as initial certification for MySQL 5.6.  There are several important new features for multi-master replication, including better
The Data Day, Two days: February 13/14 2013
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TempoDB’s timely DBaaS for the Internet of Things. ScaleBase 2.0. And more

For 451 Research clients: TempoDB has timely database service for the Internet of Things bit.ly/YcQuqA

— Matt Aslett (@maslett) February 13, 2013

For 451 Research clients: ScaleBase provides centralized management of distributed MySQL databases bit.ly/YcQTcs

— Matt Aslett (@maslett) February 13, 2013

For 451 Research clients: XtremeData turns its attention to cloud-based data warehousing bit.ly/XB7MLY

— Matt Aslett (@maslett)

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Replicating from MySQL to Amazon RDS
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There have been a number of comments that Amazon RDS does not allow users access to MySQL replication capabilities (for example here and here).  This is a pity. Replication is one of the great strengths of MySQL and the lack of it is a show-stopper for many users.  As of the latest build of Tungsten Replicator half of this problem is on the way to being solved. You can now set up real-time replication from an external MySQL master into an Amazon RDS instance.

In the remainder of this article I will explain how to set up Tungsten replication to an Amazon RDS slave, then add a

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MySQL RDS 'GoSH' is broken
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RDS has created some basic tooling for looking at the internal status variables within MySQL called Global Status History or "GoSH" though unfortunately the tooling is broken.

The tooling, detailed at the following link here is meant to snapshot the output of "show status" and squirt the data into a table in the MySQL schema called mysql.rds_global_status_history.

The issue is that the bootstrapped event called 'ev_rds_gsh_collector' is missing and therefore the procedures to enable the snapshotting fail.

It appears that whenever an RDS instance is started (or bounced) the contents of the 'mysql' schema is re-created - therefore the injection of the row into the event table is missing from whatever init script AWS has.





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First sysbench results comparing Amazon AWS RDS instances
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RDS instance details


  • sysbench seeded 100Gb database and then snapshotted
  • 1Tb of RDS storage for the database
  • RDS MySQL 5.5.27
  • Default my.cnf RDS configuration except (find the full 'show global variables' output at the end of this post)
    • performance_schema is enabled
    • innodb_flush_logs_at_trx_commit = 0
  • provisioning an RDS instance for each instance size / PIOPS configuration from the seeded database. (10 in total) 

Test details


  • Amazon RDS 
  • Within an AWS VPC
  • US-East


First warm up innodb by running sysbench with options
  • oltp table size 1000000000
  • max-requests 0
  • max-time 300 (5 minute warm up)
  • oltp test mode complex
  • oltp index updates 10
  • oltp user delay





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How to STOP SLAVE on Amazon RDS read replica
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We are doing a migration from Amazon RDS to EC2 with a customer. This, unfortunately, involves some downtime – if you are an RDS user, you probably know you can’t replicate an RDS instance to an external server (or even EC2). While it is annoying, this post isn’t going to be a rant on how RDS can make you feel locked in. Instead, I wanted to give you a quick tip.

So here’s the thing – you can’t stop replication on RDS read replica, because you don’t have (and won’t get) privileges to do that:

replica> STOP SLAVE;
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'usr'@'%' (using password: YES)

Normally, you don’t want to do that, however we wanted to run some pt-upgrade checks before we migrate



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InnoDB disabled if ib_logfile files corrupted
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I recently came across a dev VM running MySQL 5.0.77 (an old release, 28 January 2009) that didn’t have InnoDB available. skip-innodb wasn’t set, SHOW VARIABLES LIKE '%innodb%' looked as expected, but with one exception: the value of have-innodb was DISABLED.

I confirmed this with SHOW ENGINES:

(root@localhost) [(none)]> show engines;
+------------+----------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| Engine     | Support  | Comment                                                        |
+------------+----------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| MyISAM     | DEFAULT  | Default engine as of MySQL 3.23 with great performance

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Another reason to avoid RDS
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My list of reasons for never using or recommending Amazon’s MySQL RDS service grows every time I experience problems with customers. This was an interesting and still unresolved issue.

ERROR 126 (HY000): Incorrect key file for table '/rdsdbdata/tmp/#sql_5b7_1.MYI'; try to repair it

You may see this is a MyISAM table. The MySQL database is version 5.5, all InnoDB tables and is very small 100MB in total size.
What is happening is that MySQL is generating a temporary table, and this table is being written to disk. I am unable to change the code to improve the query causing this disk I/O.

What I can not understand and have no ability to diagnose is why this error occurs sometimes and generally when the database is under additional system load. With RDS you have no visibility of the server running the production database. While you have SQL


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Inode allocation on Amazon AWS RDS (Relation Database Service)
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The attached storage used by Amazon’s managed Relational Database Service has a known issue where the bytes per inode ratio is very high (default on RHEL5 systems is 4096, to be found in /etc/mke2fs.conf). Amazon does not allow any administrative access to these instances so there is no way to reformat the filesystem to allocate more inodes, or attach storage the user can format with a different ratio.

This becomes problematic for databases that have many small tables (generally MyISAM tables, or InnoDB with the innodb_file_per_table setting) which quickly consume the available inodes. When the inode allocation is exhausted MySQL responds with

"ERROR 1030 (HY000): Got
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451 CAOS Links 2010.10.08
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Patents! Patents! Patents! Canonical’s perfect 10. And more.

Follow 451 CAOS Links live @caostheory on Twitter and Identi.ca, and daily at Paper.li/caostheory
“Tracking the open source news wires, so you don’t have to.”

# Google responded to Oracle’s claims that its Android OS infringes copyrights and patents related to Java.

# Matt Asay evaluated the various patent claims against Android and its related devices.

# Microsoft licensed smartphone patents from ACCESS Co and a subsidiary of Acacia Research.

# Glyn Moody assessed what Microsoft’s


  [Read more...]
451 CAOS Links 2009.10.30
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Government adoption. Financial results. New funding. And more.

Follow 451 CAOS Links live @caostheory on Twitter and Identi.ca
“Tracking the open source news wires, so you don’t have to.”

For the latest on Oracle’s acquisition of MySQL via Sun, see Everything you always wanted to know about MySQL but were afraid to ask

Government approval
The US Department of Defense issued guidance on the adoption of open source software, while ComputerWorld reported that the U.S Department of Defense has open-sourced an enterprise


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Comparing Cloud Databases: SimpleDB, RDS and ScaleDB
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Amazon’s SimpleDB isn’t a relational database, but it does provide elastic scalability and high-availability. Amazon’s recently announced Relational Database Services (RDS) is a relational database, but it doesn’t provide elastic scalability or high-availability. If you are deploying enterprise applications on the cloud (including Amazon Web Services), you might want to look at ScaleDB because it is a relational database and it does provide elastic scalability and high-availability.

Amazon describes SimpleDB by comparing it to a clustered database:

"A traditional, clustered relational database requires a sizable upfront capital outlay, is complex to design, and often requires extensive and repetitive database administration. Amazon SimpleDB is dramatically simpler, requiring no schema, automatically indexing your data and providing a simple API for storage and access.

  [Read more...]
Comparing Cloud Databases: SimpleDB, RDS and ScaleDB
+0 Vote Up -0Vote Down

Amazon’s SimpleDB isn’t a relational database, but it does provide elastic scalability and high-availability. Amazon’s recently announced Relational Database Services (RDS) is a relational database, but it doesn’t provide elastic scalability or high-availability. If you are deploying enterprise applications on the cloud (including Amazon Web Services), you might want to look at ScaleDB because it is a relational database and it does provide elastic scalability and high-availability.

Amazon describes SimpleDB by comparing it to a clustered database:

"A traditional, clustered relational database requires a sizable upfront capital outlay, is complex to design, and often requires extensive and repetitive database administration. Amazon SimpleDB is dramatically simpler, requiring no schema, automatically indexing your

  [Read more...]
Showing entries 1 to 20

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