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We are doing a migration from Amazon RDS to EC2 with a customer. This, unfortunately, involves some downtime – if you are an RDS user, you probably know you can’t replicate an RDS instance to an external server (or even EC2). While it is annoying, this post isn’t going to be a rant on how RDS can make you feel locked in. Instead, I wanted to give you a quick tip.
So here’s the thing – you can’t stop replication on RDS read replica, because you don’t have (and won’t get) privileges to do that:
replica> STOP SLAVE; ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'usr'@'%' (using password: YES)
Normally, you don’t want to do that, however we wanted to run some pt-upgrade checks before we migrate[Read more...]
Read the original article at Cloud Operations Interview
What does a cloud computing expert need to know? How do you hire a cloud computing expert? Competition for operations & DBAs is fierce, so you’ll want to know how to find the best.
If you’re a systems administrator or ops guy, you may want to prepare for an interview for such a position. Meanwhile, if you’re a director of it or operations, a recruiter or manager in HR, you’ll want to have some idea how to find the right candidate.
Here’s my guide to do just that. You may[Read more...]
Read the original article at AirBNB didn’t have to fail
Today part of Amazon Web Services failed, taking down with it a slew of startups that all run on Amazon’s Cloud infrastructure. AirBNB was one of the biggest, but also Heroku, Reddit, Minecraft, Flipboard & Coursera down with it. Its not the first time. What the heck happened, and why should we care?
The AWS service allows companies like AirBNB to build web applications, and host them on servers owned and managed by Amazon.[Read more...]
I have seen a few posts on DBA.SE (where I answer a lot of questions) recommending the use of semi-synchronous replication in MySQL 5.5 over a WAN as a way to improve the reliability of replication. My gut reaction was that this is a very bad idea with even a tiny write load, but I wanted to test it out to confirm. Please note that I do not mean to disparage the author of those posts, a user whom I have great respect for.
What is semi-synchronous replication?
The short version is that one slave has to acknowledge receipt of the binary log event before the query returns. The slave doesn’t have[Read more...]
Read the original article at A CTO Must Never Do This…
A couple years back I was contacted to look at a very strange problem.
The firm ran flash sales. An email goes out at noon, the website traffic explodes for a couple of hours, then settles back down to a trickle.
Of course you might imagine where this is going. During that peak, the MySQL database was brought to its knees. I was asked to do analysis during this peak load, and identify and fix problems. Make it go faster, please!
First day on the job I’m working with a team of outsourced DBAs. I was also working[Read more...]
"When you develop an app for facebook, you must be prepared (and be afraid) that to your party, not noone will show up, but everybody will show up!"So true! Simple and true. We all want to succeed, to have success with our app. We have to think about scaling [Read more...]
These instructions are used by the Effective MySQL: Backup and Recovery book examples.
I've been spending some time lately familiarizing myself with EC2, setting up some MySQL servers & clusters here and there, and doing some really basic configuration testing. One situation you'll run into when interacting with EC2 is that it gets unwieldy to use the AWS Management Console web interface for interacting with your instances. There ends up being lots of scrolling, lots of staring, and lots of sighs. Since I'm using SSH to connect to and interact with my instances, I want a reasonable way to find information about them on the Unix command line.
Amazon has an official set of tools [http://aws.amazon.com/developertools/351] that give you this information , at least theoretically. It is some gigantic distribution of shell scripts and Java madness that, if you are very[Read more...]
Modern internet infrastructure are complex. Components and services are prone to failure. Resiliency involves building redundancy, best practices and processes into your architecture to make you able to bend and not break.
1. Use Auto-scaling
Auto-scaling is a unique feature of cloud computing and Amazon's EC2 offering. Setup a load balancer and a couple of webservers for your application as you normally would. Design your webserver based on a template AMI that you'll reuse over and over. Then setup auto-scaling and set thresholds based on the traffic you forecast. When a threshold is passed, AWS will spinup a new instance of your webserver, and roll it into the load balancer pool[Read more...]
When I spoke at Percona Live (video here) on running an E-commerce database in Amazon EC2, I briefly talked about using RAID 10 for additional performance and fault tolerance when using EBS volumes. At first, this seems counter intuitive. Amazon has a robust infrastructure, EBS volumes run on RAIDed hardware, and are mirrored in multiple availability zones. So, why bother? Today, I was reminded of just how important it is. Please note that all my performance statistics are based on direct experience running a MySQL database on a m2.4xlarge instance and not on some random bonnie or orion benchmark. I have those graphs floating around on my hard drive in glorious 3D and, while interesting, they do not necessarily reflect real-life[Read more...]
In the press in the last two days has been the reported outage of Amazon Web Services Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) in just one North Virginia data center. This has affected many large website includes FourSquare, Hootsuite, Reddit and Quora. A detailed list can be found at ec2disabled.com.
For these popular websites was this avoidable? Absolutely.
Basic scalability principles if deployed in these systems architecture would have averted the significant downtime regardless of your development stack. While I work primarily in MySQL these principles are not new, nor are they complicated, however they are fundamental concepts in scalability that apply to any technology[Read more...]
Amazon's EC2 and its sister S3 service have been indisputable leaders in IaaS for a long while now and GlassFish and more generally J2EE/JavaEE took advantage of it starting in 2008 (see here and here), with documented how-to's and significant production references.
Just yesterday, AWS's Evangelist Jeff Barr announced[Read more...]
Cloud Application Architectures
This is a great book on how to build apps in the cloud! I was happy to see how much depth it went into. It’s short — 150 pages plus some appendixes — so I was expecting it to be a superficial overview. But it isn’t. It is thorough. And it is also obviously built on his own experience building very specific applications that he uses to run his business — he[Read more...]
Savio Rodrigues has published a post arguing that cloud platforms such as Amazon Web Services and Microsoft’s Azure pose a threat to the monetization of open source by specialist vendors.
Savio makes a good case based on the recent launch of AWS’s Relational Database Service, based on MySQL, and Microsoft’s support for MySQL and Tomcat on Azure:
“When Amazon decided to offer MySQL via Amazon RDS, they did so without purchasing MySQL support from Sun. I’ve confirmed that Microsoft Azure is supporting MySQL on Azure without paying Sun for a MySQL Enterprise subscription.”
Clearly there is a threat to open source vendors from cloud-based services. Meanwhile I have previous[Read more...]
Cloudera lands funding. SourceForge acquires Ohloh. Novell reports Linux growth. And more.
Follow 451 CAOS Links live @caostheory
Cloudera shows signs of progress
GigaOM reported that Cloudera raised $6m Series B funding from Accel and Greylock and is now looking beyond web applications to wider enterprise adoption of Hadoop. Cloudera also announced its first certification program for Hadoop.
Open source goes mainstream in the UK
There have been signs of change recently with regards to open source adoption in the UK, which has traditionally lagged behind the rest of Europe and the US. CBR Magazine provided an analysis of open source in the UK
Marco Tabini has a great post discussing the cost of the cloud, and the current state of affairs. He calls for a simpler cloud platform, not just in terms of cost, but ease of use and products and services that adapt to changes in the market. Though the $100/month Mosso offering is mentioned (this site is hosted on Mosso), I would like to point out the recent acquisitions by Rackspace/Mosso that make their cloud offerings even more compelling than AWS for me.
UPDATED - I had to update this post after a conversation with RightScale founder and CTO Thorsten von Eicken and for Sun’s Open Cloud announcement, which are both now included below.
There has been some substantial technology and news regarding open source software in cloud computing lately. More proof that open source is reaching into nearly all aspects of enterprise and broader IT, and also reinforcement of the idea that open source software will continue to have a pervasive and disruptive impact on the way organizations of all shapes and sizes do their computing and deal with their data.
First up is RightScale, which as detailed by 451 colleague and Principal Analyst William Fellows, is up and running across the pond on[Read more...]
A lot of people are into the whole cloud computing scenario these days. However, no one has talked about offering DBA-like services in the cloud, all automated, so that startups don’t have to get their own DBAs.
Enter FathomDB. They are poised to offer databases as a service (maybe they’ll charge per database - so you can in theory run both WordPress and Mediawiki, if you prefix wp_ and mw_ in your table creation, for example). They are using MySQL. They’ve also taken the worry of running a database out - they will backup, they will setup (so you don’t have to issue GRANT commands :P), and they will also monitor your databases for you.
But what really takes the cake? The fact that they will also offer performance advisors. This totally reminds me of the MySQL[Read more...]
In high school, I had a great programmable calculator. I’d program it to solve complicated math and science problems “automatically” for me. Most of my teachers got upset if they found out, but I’ll always remember one especially enlightened teacher who didn’t. He said something to the effect of “Hey, if you managed to write software to solve the equation, you must thoroughly understand the problem. Way to go!”.
George Reese wrote up a blog post over at O’Reilly the other day called On Why I Don’t Like Auto-Scaling in the Cloud. His main argument seems to be that auto-scaling is bad and reflects poor capacity planning. In the comments, he specifically calls[Read more...]
For those of you who have been under a rock for the last several years, there is a buzz-phrase floating around—cloud computing. If you haven’t been paying attention, it is time to wake up.
While I could spend an entire blog post—if not several—on a definition of cloud computing, I will be talking only about cloud computing in the sense of companies moving servers from their building or network operations center to running virtual servers in this computing cloud.
While there are a number of companies providing virtual servers, the most visible is Amazon, with their Amazon Web Services (AWS). I will be talking about AWS in this post as it is the service with which I am most familiar. It seems like every month, AWS rolls out new options and services. Just recently Amazon announced that you can now run on AWS the Windows operating system along with[Read more...]
CREATE TABLE colors (nam VARCHAR(32) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY, val BLOB) ENGINE='AWSS3' CONNECTION='awss3 bucket_name aws_id aws_secret'; SELECT val FROM colors WHERE nam='BlueViolet';
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