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Displaying posts with tag: swap (reset)
MySQL Swap Insanity: Solved

Yes, it has been a while since my last post.  Still in the midst of MySQL ecosystem, and enjoying it tremendously.  I thought I would make this post as it relates to a topic that has some varied results in the online world, and I would like to kick start this blog again.  We'll see how that goes... :)

MySQL has been able to harness the potential of more powerful (CPU) and larger (RAM, disk space

XtraBackup causing swap despite numa_interleave on mysqld

Jeremy Cole has an excellent article on why a mysqld instance will swap despite proper memory settings on modern hardware here. A quick hand-wave of a summary goes: in modern architecture, every process is, by default, limited to a 1/Nth of the available memory on a machine, where N is the number of cores, and will start to swap on disk when all the available memory in that 1/Nth is consumed.

 

The eventual solution for a large, single-instance mysqld-running machine is to enable numa_interleave in the mysqld_safe section of the config:

Implicitly, when that flag is set, mysqld is being started by mysqld_safe with a numactl flag that will spread the memory …

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OOM relation to vm.swappiness=0 in new kernel

I have recently been involved in diagnosing the reasons behind OOM invocation that would kill the MySQL server process. Of course these servers were primarily running MySQL. As such the MySQL server process was the one with the largest amount of memory allocated.

But the strange thing was that in all the cases, there was no swapping activity seen and there were enough pages in the page cache. Ironically all of these servers were CentOS 6.4 running kernel version 2.6.32-358. Another commonality was the fact that vm.swappiness was set to 0. This is a pretty much standard practice and one that is applied on nearly every server that runs MySQL.

Looking into this further I realized that there was a change introduced in kernel 3.5-rc1 that altered the swapping behavior when “vm.swappiness=0″.

Below is the description of the commit that changed “vm.swappiness=0″ behavior, together with the diff:

$ git …
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On MySQL Memory Usage and Configuration

I saw a post on profiling memory usage today and this reminds me of several discussions I have had with different people.

Why would you want to profile the memory usage? Usually to see where memory is allocated and for what purposes, and usually you only care when memory usage is higher than expected. That is a DBA normally wants to use all available memory on a server for mysqld, whatever that size may be.

Configuration parameters may be inappropriate and need adjusting, so having a way to determine the range of memory usage based on those parameters would be most helpful.  However, the configuration parameters as a whole put no limit on memory used, so different workloads can quite easily lead to memory being insufficient on the OS, triggering swapping or perhaps the …

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MySQL, OOM Killer, and everything related

Do the operating systems kill your MySQL instances from time to time? Are some database servers swapping constantly? These are relatively common problems. Why? How to prevent them?

Memory allocation

When a running program needs some additional memory, it can typically allocate it dynamically with malloc() function. It finds an unused continuous block that is at least as large as the requested size, reserves as much as it needs, and returns a pointer to that space. No initialization of the memory contents is performed at the time. When malloc() returns NULL instead of a valid address, it is an information to the calling program that there wasn’t enough memory available and the call has failed to allocate anything. In such cases applications typically take appropriate actions to notify users about the problem and terminate some of their activity or completely shut down.

In Linux it can be a little bit …

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An elaborate way to break a MySQL server with XtraBackup

XtraBackup is a great piece of software from Percona, which allows creating (nearly) lock-less MySQL/InnoDB backups. The tool has been around for quite some time and recently even received a major version bump. I have relied on it many times over the years. As it turns out, using it in some configurations may lead to heavy swapping or prevent MySQL from running queries.

So far I only kept complaining about the wrapper script XtraBackup has been distributed with and which was taken from Oracle’s InnoDB Hot Backup. The infamous innobackupex-1.5.1 was neither well written, nor was it even fully compatible with the XtraBackup’s feature set. This sometimes led to weird problems where there should not be any.

This time the problem can appear elsewhere. Mostly when one using the tool does not understand how it works in certain circumstances.

How does XtraBackup work?

In a few short words. XtraBackup …

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How to check if MySQL has been swapped out?

How to check if any MySQL memory has been swapped out? This post explains it.

Check if system is currently using any swap:

server ~ # free -m
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:          3954       2198       1755          0        190       1040
-/+ buffers/cache:        968       2985
Swap:         3906          0       3906

In the above example swap is not in use, so no further checks would be necessary.

However if free command would report some usage, how to check whether MySQL memory was swapped out or not?

It is not possible to determine that using standard tools such as ps or top. They will report various memory related information per each process, but no clear indication whether something is in RAM or in swap space. But it is possible with this trivial command:

awk '/^Swap:/ { SWAP+=$2 } END { print …

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My swap space on an SSD?

I had an interesting discussion with 2 colleagues about the possible interest of putting the swap space of a system on a SSD.

If I consider the gain in latency that an SSD brings versus a capacity disk - in the region of 100x - the solution seems obvious. Swapping - or more precisely paging - must be much faster/ with an SSD. Since RAM is expensive versus SSD, I could even be tempted to design a system with a small amount of RAM and a large amount of swap space on SSDs. In other words, I can ask myself if trying to prevent my system to page is still a good fight?

Let's try to shed some light on these questions.

Paging takes place when my system runs out of RAM because more processes are created or because existing processes requires more memory (check this article for details about how to monitor …

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My swap space on an SSD?

I had an interesting discussion with 2 colleagues about the possible interest of putting the swap space of a system on a SSD.

If I consider the gain in latency that an SSD brings versus a capacity disk - in the region of 100x - the solution seems obvious. Swapping - or more precisely paging - must be much faster/ with an SSD. Since RAM is expensive versus SSD, I could even be tempted to design a system with a small amount of RAM and a large amount of swap space on SSDs. In other words, I can ask myself if trying to prevent my system to page is still a good fight?

Let's try to shed some light on these questions.

Paging takes place when my system runs out of RAM because more processes are created or because existing processes requires more memory (check this article for details about how to monitor …

[Read more]
My swap space on an SSD?

I had an interesting discussion with 2 colleagues about the possible interest of putting the swap space of a system on a SSD.

If I consider the gain in latency that an SSD brings versus a capacity disk - in the region of 100x - the solution seems obvious. Swapping - or more precisely paging - must be much faster/ with an SSD. Since RAM is expensive versus SSD, I could even be tempted to design a system with a small amount of RAM and a large amount of swap space on SSDs. In other words, I can ask myself if trying to prevent my system to page is still a good fight?

Let's try to shed some light on these questions.

Paging takes place when my system runs out of RAM because more processes are created or because existing processes requires more memory (check this article for details about how to …

[Read more]
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