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Previous 30 Newer Entries Showing entries 61 to 90 of 186 Next 30 Older Entries

Displaying posts with tag: scalability (reset)

Impressions from Amazon's AWS Summit in NYC
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Yesterday (4/19) I attended the AWS Summit in NYC (http://aws.amazon.com/aws-summit-2012/nyc).

I'm a big fan and also a heavy user of AWS especially S3, EC2, and naturally, RDS. In every point in time I have several dozens of AWS machines running for me out there in the East region, and in some cases when we do some special benchmarks and tests, number of EC2 and RDS machines can easily reach 3-digit. As I said, I'm a fan...

A few quotes I was able to catch and document on my laptop, on my laps...:
"When you develop an app for facebook, you must be prepared (and be afraid) that to your party, not noone will show up, but everybody will show up!"
So true! Simple and true. We all want to succeed, to have success with our app. We have to think about scaling




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So how can we scale databases?
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There are ways to scale databases, unfortunately some are limited, some introduce complexities, some are do not fit the cloud...

By scaling solution I mean a solutions that help me scale my existing environment, my existing RDBMS. Some magic or technology that will take my existing Oracle or MySQL for example, to the next level, without porting to a new DB engine/vendor and without completely recoding my app.

Let's try to organize things a bit in this very summarized table, just to get the hunch of it. I can't imagine to cover it all in 1 table or even 100 pages, but that should be a start of a meaningful discussion to continue in next posts:

Solution Scales reads? Scales writes? Scales data? Scales sessions? Cloud? Bottom line Scale-Up: faster HW, CPU, memory,





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Applications come and go. Databases are here to scale.
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In my heart, I'm a DBA, always was and always will be. People say I'm a database guy by the way I think, keep my car, and file my music and also bank statements... However I did great deal of development, design, architecture on the apps side. I (hope to) have some perspective.

Applications come and go. The second programming language I've ever learned and worked on was COBOL, some still say most of the world's lines of code are written in this language, maybe so, but anyway I since then have known and written in dozens of programming languages, from Assembly to Force.com, from Pascal to Delphi, from functional C to Object Oriented SmallTalk, C++, Java and , from compiled C/CGI to interpreted Perl, ASP and Ruby back to compiled node.js... My first applications ran on Main-Frame with green screen, later I created beautiful graphic

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MariaDB-5.5 Thread Pool Performance
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MariaDB-5.5.21-beta is the first MariaDB release featuring the new thread pool. Oracle offers a commercial thread pool plugin for MySQL Enterprise, but now MariaDB brings a thread pool implementation to the community!

If you are not familiar with the term, please read the Knowledge Base article about it.

The main design goal of the thread pool is to increase the scalability of the MariaDB server with many concurrent connections. In order to test and demonstrate this, I have run the sysbench OLTP RO benchmark with up to 4096 threads to compare the new pool-of-threads and the traditional thread-per-connection scheduler:

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Black-Box Performance Analysis with TCP Traffic
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This is a cross-post from the MySQL Performance Blog. I thought it would be interesting to users of PostgreSQL, Redis, Memcached, and $system-of-interest as well.

For about the past year I’ve been formulating a series of tools and practices that can provide deep insight into system performance simply by looking at TCP packet headers, and when they arrive and depart from a system. This works for MySQL as well as a lot of other types of systems, because it doesn’t require any of the contents of the packet. Thus, it works without knowledge of what the server and client are conversing about. Packet headers contain only information that’s usually regarded as non-sensitive (IP address, port, TCP flags, etc), so it’s

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Scalability Rules for managers and startups
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Read the original article at Scalability Rules for managers and startups

Abbott and Fisher’s previous book, The Art of Scalability received good reviews for shifting the way we think about scalability from merely splitting databases and adding servers, to include the human factors that weigh heavily on its success. Together with the authors’ distinguished pedigree (PayPal, Amazon, and eBay between them), I picked up a copy of their second book, Scalability Rules - 50 Principles for Scaling Web Sites without a second

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What Ops doesn’t tell you about your MySQL Database
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Read the original article at What Ops doesn’t tell you about your MySQL Database

MySQL is a very scalable platform which has proven robust even in the most dense and complex data environments. MySQL’s indispensable replication function is ‘sold’ as being fail-safe so you have little to sweat about as long as your backups are running regularly. But what the ops guys aren’t telling you is MySQL performs replication with tiny margins of error that could cause big problems in times of disaster.

The Scenario

Imagine the scene, you use replication to backup your data. Your secondary database is your peace of mind. It’s the always-on

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High Performance PHP Session Storage on Scale
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One of the great things about the HTTP protocol, besides status code 418, is that it's stateless. A web server therefore is not required to store any information on the user or allocate resources for a user after the individual request is done. By that a single web server can handle many many many different users easily, and well if it can't anymore one can add a new server, put a simple load balancer in front and scale out. Each of those web servers then handles its requests without the need for communication which leads to linear scaling (assuming network provides enough bandwidth etc.).

Now the Web isn't used for serving static documents only anymore but we have all these fancy web apps. And those applications often have the need for a state. The most trivial information they need is the current user.

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Replication stars
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Working with replication, you come across many topologies, some of them sound and established, some of them less so, and some of them still in the realm of the hopeless wishes. I have been working with replication for almost 10 years now, and my wish list grew quite big during this time. In the last 12 months, though, while working at Continuent, some of the topologies that I wanted to work with have moved from the cloud of wishful thinking to the firm land of things that happen. My quest for star replication starts with the most common topology. One master, many slaves.

Fig 1. Master/Slave topology

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Book Review – Effective MySQL
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Read the original article at Book Review – Effective MySQL

Effective MySQL: Optimizing SQL Statements by Ronald Bradford No Nonsense, Readable, Practical, and Compact I like that this book is small; 150 pages means you can carry it easily.  It’s also very no nonsense.  It does not dig too deeply into theory unless it directly relates to your day-to-day needs.  And those needs probably cluster [...]

For more articles like these go to iHeavy, Inc +1-212-533-6828

5 Tips to Cache Websites and Boost Speed
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Read the original article at 5 Tips to Cache Websites and Boost Speed

Often when we think about speeding up and scaling, we focus on the application layer itself.  We look at the webserver tier, and database tier, and optimize the most resource intensive pages.

There's much more we can do to speed things up, if we only turn over the right stones.  Whether you're using WordPress or not, many of these principals can be applied.  However we'll use WordPress as our test case.

Test Your Website speed

There are web-based speed testing tools that will help with this

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Why generalists are better at scaling the web
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Recently at Surge 2011, the annual  conference on scalability  and performance, Google's CIO Ben Fried gave an illuminating keynote address. His main insight was that generalists are the people that will lead engineering teams in successfully scaling the web.

In a world where the badge of Specialist or Expert is prized, this was refreshing perspective from an industry bigwig. As tech professionals, or any professional for that matter, we don't welcome the label of generalist. The word suggests a jack-of-all-trades and master of none. But the generalist is no less an expert than the specialist. Generalists can get their hands greasy with the tools to fix bugs in the

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When systems scale better than linearly
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I’ve been seeing a few occasions where Neil J. Gunther’s Universal Scalability Law doesn’t seem to model all of the important factors in a system as it scales. Models are only models, and they’re not the whole truth, so they never match reality perfectly. But there appear to be a small number of cases where systems can actually scale a bit better than linearly over a portion of the domain, due to what I’ve been calling an “economy of scale.” I believe that the Universal Scalability Law might need a third factor (seriality, coherency, and the new factor, economy of scale). I don’t think that the results I’m seeing can be modeled adequately with only two parameters.

Here are two publicly available cases that appear to demonstrate this phenomenon: Robert Haas’s

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Surge 2011 slides, recap
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This year’s Surge conference was a great sophomore event to follow up last year’s inaugural conference. A lot of very smart people were there, and the hallway track was great.

I presented on three things: a lightning talk about causes of MySQL downtime; I chaired a panel on Big Data and the Cloud; and I showed how to derive scalability and performance metrics from TCP traffic. I’ve sent my slides to the Surge organizers, and I understand that they will be posting them as well as integrating them into the video of my session. In the meanwhile you can download my slides from Percona’s presentations page.

Further Reading:

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iHeavy Newsletter 84 – Restaurant Scalability
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Restaurant Scalability

Could pro-waitering serve up some lessons on web scalability? Observing peak hour dining at a New York restaurant gave us some insight.

I was dining at a restaurant the other day with friends. It was a warm and cozy place, nicely decorated with a long, narrow dining room.  The food was scrumptious, yet we were getting increasingly frustrated by the service as the night went along.

With some waiting experience behind me, I could immediately see the problem. The waiters, probably through lack of experience, were making the mistake of doing one thing at a time.  They would go to a table, respond to one

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Scale Quickly Like Birchbox – Startup Scalability 101
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Read the original article at Scale Quickly Like Birchbox – Startup Scalability 101

One of the great things about the Internet is how it has made it easier to put great ideas into practice. Whether the ideas are about improving people’s lives or a new way to sell and old-fashioned product, there’s nothing like a good little startup tale of creative disruption to deliver us from something old and tired.

We work with a lot of startup firms and we love being part of the atmosphere of optimism and ingenuity, peppered with a bit of youthful zeal - something very indie-rock-and-roll about it. But whether they are just starting out or already picking up pace every startup faces the same challenges to scale a business. Recently, we were reminded of this

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New Commercial Extensions for MySQL Enterprise Edition
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MySQL 5.5 GA and MySQL 5.6 Development Milestone Releases have delivered many new compelling features to the MySQL users and community for testing, feedback and use.

In addition, commercial customers have access to a number of commercial extensions already included in MySQL Enterprise Edition (http://mysql.com/products/enterprise/):

•    MySQL Enterprise Monitor (http://mysql.com/products/enterprise/monitor.html)
•    MySQL Enterprise Backup (http://mysql.com/products/enterprise/backup.html)

Continuing the business model of MySQL, we are adding three new commercial extensions to MySQL Enterprise Edition:

  • MySQL Enterprise Scalability
    • Thread Pool
  • MySQL









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New Commercial Extensions for MySQL Enterprise Edition
Employee_Team +0 Vote Up -0Vote Down

MySQL 5.5 GA and MySQL 5.6 Development Milestone Releases have delivered many new compelling features to the MySQL users and community for testing, feedback and use.

In addition, commercial customers have access to a number of commercial extensions already included in MySQL Enterprise Edition (http://mysql.com/products/enterprise/):

•    MySQL Enterprise Monitor (http://mysql.com/products/enterprise/monitor.html)
•    MySQL Enterprise Backup (http://mysql.com/products/enterprise/backup.html)

Continuing the business model of MySQL, we are adding three new commercial extensions to MySQL Enterprise Edition:

  • MySQL Enterprise Scalability
    • Thread Pool
  • MySQL









  [Read more...]
MySQL Cluster is a brilliant NoSQL database
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MySQL Cluster* is one of the most advanced and scalable databases available today and, despite what its name might suggest, it is also a brilliant NoSQL database**.
Let me discuss this statement!
First, let’s discuss the high level issues that NoSQL databases try to address:-     Scalability. Traditional RDBMS technology was designed four decades ago, and is not appropriate for today’s Big Data requirements. Database systems today need to be able to scale horizontally over multiple machines to handle millions of users. As the CAP theorem states, it is not possible to achieve availability, scalability and consistency in one system. Several NoSQL databases sacrifice consistency for availability and scalability. -     RDBMS has a rigid data model. Once a


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5 Things That Are Toxic to Scalability
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Scalability is about application, architecture and infrastructure design, and careful management of server components.

1. Object Relational Mappers

ORMs are popular among developers but not among performance experts.  Why is that?  Primarily these two engineers experience a web application from entirely different perspectives.  One is building functionality, delivering features, and results are measured on fitting business requirements.  Performance and scalability are often low priorities at this stage.  ORMs allow developers to be much more productive, abstracting away the SQL difficulties of interacting with the backend datastore, and allowing them to concentrate on building the features and functionality.

On the performance side the picture is a bit different.  By leaving SQL query writing to an ORM, you are faced with complex queries that

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Top 3 Questions From Clients
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1. This page or area of the website is very slow, why?

There are a lot of components that make up modern internet websites, and a lot of places to get stuck in the mud.  Website performance starts with the browser, what caching it is doing, their bandwidth to your server, what the webserver is doing (caching or not and how), if the webserver has sufficient memory, and then what the application code is doing and lastly how it is interacting with the backend database.

With all this complexity, it's no wonder so many sites struggle.  Typically these types of analysis start with some load testing, to stress test your setup, so you can watch for leaks.  Then

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Specialty Technology Consultant – New York Scalability Consultant – MySQL & EC2 Scalability
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Amazon EC2 and cloud computing offer great promise for startups to ramp up their online presence quickly.  Navigate those challenges with an strong partner.  We bring 20 years experience to the table with each new client.

  • Scaling Web Applications
  • MySQL High Availability in Amazon EC2
  • Amazon Multi-AZ Deployments
  • Amazon RDS Deployments
  • Migrating to Amazon EC2
  • Migrating to MySQL
  • Managing Backups and Disaster Recovery in the Cloud
  • Horizontal Scalability of MySQL on EC2
  • Horizontal Scalability on Cloud Hosted Servers
  • Evaluating Cloud Providers
  • Evaluating MySQL
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Economy up or down, can open source come out on top?
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We’ve written about how a bad economy is indeed good for open source software. We’ve also recognized that with open source software’s maturity and place at the enterprise software table, a bad economy can be a double-edged sword for open source since the failure or fade of large enterprise customers, say big banks, hurts open source vendors right alongside traditional software providers.

What is interesting is that after a couple of years of economic rebuilding, we’ve seen recently how open source is being driven by innovation,

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3 Ways to Boost Cloud Scalability
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Deploying in the Amazon cloud is touted as a great way to achieve high scalability while paying only for the computing power you use. How do you get the best scalability from the technology?

1. Use Auto-scaling

Auto-scaling is a unique feature of cloud computing and Amazon's EC2 offering. Setup a load balancer and a couple of webservers for your application as you normally would. Design your webserver based on a template AMI that you'll reuse over and over. Then setup auto-scaling and set thresholds based on the traffic you forecast. When a threshold is passed, AWS will spinup a new instance of your webserver, and roll it into the load balancer pool

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5 Ways to Boost MySQL Scalability
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There are a lot of scalability challenges we see with clients over and over. The list could easily include 20, 50 or even 100 items, but we shortened it down to the biggest five issues we see.

1. Tune those queries

By far the biggest bang for your buck is query optimization. Queries can be functionally correct and meet business requirements without being stress tested for high traffic and high load. This is why we often see clients with growing pains, and scalability challenges as their site becomes more popular. This also makes sense. It wouldn't necessarily be a good use of time to tune a query for some page off in a remote corner of your site, that didn't receive

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I’ll be presenting at Postgres Open 2011
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I’ve been accepted to present at the brand-new and very exciting Postgres Open 2011 about system scaling, TCP traffic, and mathematical modeling. I’m really looking forward to it — it will be my first PostgreSQL conference in a couple of years! See you there.

Related posts:

  • Postgres folks, consider the 2011 MySQL conference
  • O’Reilly MySQL 2011 conference CfP is open
  • My sessions at the O’Reilly MySQL Conference 2011
  •   [Read more...]
    I’m speaking at Surge 2011
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    I’ll be speaking at Surge again this year. This time, unlike last year’s talk, I’m tackling a very concrete topic: extracting scalability and performance metrics from TCP network traffic. It turns out that most things that communicate over TCP can be analyzed very elegantly just by capturing arrival and departure timestamps of packets, nothing more. I’ll show examples where different views on the same data pull out completely different insights about the application, even though we have no information about the application itself (okay, I actually know that it’s a MySQL database, and a lot about the actual database and workload, but I don’t need that in order to do what I’ll show you). It’s an amazingly powerful technique that I

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    When can I have a big server in the cloud?
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    I was at a conference recently talking with a Major Cloud Hosting Provider and mentioned that for database servers, I really want large instances, quite a bit larger than the largest I can get now. The lack of cloud servers with lots of memory, many fast cores, and fast I/O and network performance leads to premature sharding, which is costly. A large number of applications can currently run on a single real server, but would require sharding to run in any of the popular cloud providers’ environments. And many of those applications aren’t growing rapidly, so by the time they outgrow today’s hardware we can pretty much count on simply upgrading and staying on a single machine.

    The person I was talking to actually seemed to become angry at me, and basically called me an idiot. This person’s opinion is that no one should be

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    Basic scalability principles to avert downtime
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    In the press in the last two days has been the reported outage of Amazon Web Services Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) in just one North Virginia data center. This has affected many large website includes FourSquare, Hootsuite, Reddit and Quora. A detailed list can be found at ec2disabled.com.

    For these popular websites was this avoidable? Absolutely.

    Basic scalability principles if deployed in these systems architecture would have averted the significant downtime regardless of your development stack. While I work primarily in MySQL these principles are not new, nor are they complicated, however they are fundamental concepts in scalability that apply to any technology

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    The CAP Theorem Event Horizon
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    The CAP Theorem has become a convenient excuse for throwing data consistency under the bus. It is automatically assumed that every distributed system falls prey to CAP and therefore must sacrifice one of the three objectives, with consistency being the consistent fall guy. This automatic assumption is simply false. I am not debating the validity of the CAP Theorem, but instead positing that the onset of CAP limitations—what I call the CAP event horizon—does not start as soon as you move to a second master database node. Certain approaches can, in fact, extend the CAP event horizon.
    Physics tells us that different properties apply at different scales. For example, quantum physics displays properties that do not apply at larger scale. We see similar nuances in scaling databases. For example, if you are running a master slave database, using synchronous replication with a single
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