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Displaying posts with tag: Professional (reset)

Percona Live Conference Recommendations
+2 Vote Up -0Vote Down

While many attendees are repeat offenders, if 2013 is your first MySQL conference and you are relatively new with MySQL (say

Here are my top recommendations that give you a good grounding in the various conference topics and a wealth of experience from known MySQL authorities, on important topics.

  • A backup today saves you tomorrow by Ben Mildred at Pythian. Losing your data is a terrible experience. Learn what is needed to keep your data safe and you system highly available.
  •   [Read more...]
    When is the error log filename not the right filename
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    When evaluating a MySQL system one of the first things to look at is the MySQL error log. This is defined by the log[_-]error variable in the MySQL Configuration file. Generally found like:

    grep log.error /etc/my.cnf

    It is possible to find multiple rows because this could be defined in the [mysqld] and [mysqld_safe] sections. It is also possible it is incorrectly defined twice in any given section.

    Immediately I see a problem here, and the following describes why. If you look at this file name, in this case it’s actually found, but the file is empty.

    $ ls -l /var/lib/mysql/logs/mysql_error_log
    -rw-r----- 1 mysql mysql 0 Feb 19 20:35 /var/lib/mysql/logs/mysql_error_log

    An error log should never exist and be

      [Read more...]
    The MySQL symlink trap
    +3 Vote Up -1Vote Down

    Many users of MySQL install and use the standard directories for MySQL data and binary logs. Generally this is /var/lib/mysql.
    As your system grows and you need more disk space on the general OS partition that commonly holds /tmp, /usr and often /home, you create a dedicated partition, for example /mysql. The MySQL data, binary logs etc are then moved to this partition (hopefully in dedicated directories). For example data is placed in /mysql/data.
    Often however, a symbolic link (symlink) is used to so MySQL still refers to the data in /var/lib/mysql.

    When it comes to removing the symlink and correctly configuring MySQL, you first stop MySQL and correctly defining the datadir my.cnf variable to point to the right location. However, MySQL still keeps the legacy directory information around and this will cause MySQL replication to fail in several ways when you

      [Read more...]
    What OS do you use for MySQL?
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    In looking at operating systems in use for last year I found a very high concentration of RedHat/CentOS 5, and Ubuntu LTS operating systems. I would like to get a better picture of what is really used for MySQL production systems.
    Please take a moment to help me out. This survey only has one question.


    Poor programming practices
    +3 Vote Up -2Vote Down

    When will it stop. These amateur programmers that simply cut/paste code really affect those good programmers in the ecosystem trying to make a decent living. I was reviewing a developed (but incomplete) PHP/MySQL system using a common framework (which in itself is irrelevant for this post).

    In one source file there were 12 repetitions of the following code:

        if (!array_key_exists($id,$this->session->userdata['permissions']) OR
    	!array_key_exists('id', $this->session->userdata['permissions'][$id]) OR
    	!array_key_exists('scope', $this->session->userdata['permissions'][$id]['name'])){
          $this->session->set_flashdata('alert', 'You are not authorized to go there.');

    It’s bad enough when code

      [Read more...]
    Upgrading to MySQL 5.5 on Ubuntu 10.04 LTS
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    Ubuntu does not provide an apt-get repository package for MySQL 5.5 on this older OS, however this is still a widely used long term support version. The following steps will upgrade an existing MySQL 5.1 apt-get version to a standard MySQL 5.5 binary.

    Step 1. Remove existing MySQL 5.1 retaining data and configuration

    sudo su -
    service mysql stop
    cp -r /etc/mysql /etc/mysql.51
    cp -r /var/lib/mysql /var/lib/mysql.51
    which mysqld
    dpkg -P mysql-server mysql-server-5.1 mysql-server-core-5.1
    which mysqld
    which mysql
    dpkg -P mysql-client-5.1 mysql-client-core-5.1
    which mysql
    dpkg -P libdbd-mysql-perl libmysqlclient16 mysql-common
    # This will not remove /etc/mysql if any other files are in the directory
    dpkg -l | grep mysql
    [ -d /etc/mysql ] && mv /etc/mysql /etc/mysql.uninstall
    cp -r /etc/mysql.51 /etc/mysql

    2. Prepare configuration  [Read more...]

    Not a cool new feature for Master_Host
    +1 Vote Up -1Vote Down

    I was surprised to find on a customer MySQL server this new syntax for Master_host in SHOW SLAVE STATUS.

    *************************** 1. row ***************************
                   Slave_IO_State: Connecting to master
                      Master_Host: testdb1.xxx.com or 10.XXX.XX.XXX
                      Master_User: repl
                      Master_Port: 3306
                    Connect_Retry: 60
                  Master_Log_File: db1-354215-bin-log.000005
              Read_Master_Log_Pos: 1624
                   Relay_Log_File: db2-354214-relay-log.000001

    Is this a fancy new Percona Server feature? No. It’s operator error.

    We read a little further to find.

                 Slave_IO_Running: Connecting
                    Last_IO_Errno: 2005
      [Read more...]
    Installing MySQL MHA with Percona Server
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    MySQL MHA by Oracle ACE Director Yoshinori Matsunobu is an excellent open source tool to help in providing HA with native MySQL replication. The installation however is dependent on some Perl packages and to the untrained eye this may be an issue if you are using Percona Server as your choice of MySQL implementation.

    The MHA Node page requires the perl-DBD-MySQL package to be installed. The installation on RedHat/CentOS/Oracle Linux look like this:

    $ sudo yum install perl-DBD-MySQL
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
    Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
    * base: mirror.anl.gov
    * extras: mirror.anl.gov
    * updates: mirror.anl.gov
    Setting up Install Process
      [Read more...]
    SQLSTATE[HY000]: General error: 2006 MySQL server has gone away
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    This would have to be one of the most common MySQL error messages that is misleading to the end user developer. The MySQL Manual page confirms the broad range of possible conditions, but offers little to a PHP developer that does not speak MySQL Geek. I am commonly asked to help solve this issue from a developer.

    The problem is that there are several conditions that can cause this error, and a more meaningful explanation to the end user would help in addressing the issue. In general terms, this actually means “Your SQL statement has failed because the connection to the database has been disconnected because of ???”.

    Here are a few common situations and how to check for what “???” is.

    1. Your MySQL server really did go away.

      [Read more...]
    Open Source Database Schemas
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    I am seeking the help of the community. I am working on an evaluation project about schema design in open source applications. While it’s possible for me to download the software of many popular apps, and install the software and then do a mysqldump, it takes time. Quite often there is no simple schema.sql file, but a process for creating the schema. If you are using an open source project, would you take a moment and run the following.

    $ mysqldump -u[user] -p --skip-lock-tables --no-data --databases [schema]  > [schema].sql

    This will only dump the table definitions, and should therefore contain nothing company specific. I have at this time:

    • WordPress
    • Drupal
    • Mediawiki
    • OS Commerce
    • Joomla
    • EzPublish
    • PHPWiki

    I am open to any projects, and it doesn’t matter if the

      [Read more...]
    Controlled failover simplicity with MySQL
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    As part of a recent engagement, I described the relative products to manage a MySQL pair (i.e. an Active/Passive MySQL masters configuration). This included the steps to undertake a controlled failover for supporting software maintenance using manual procedures. The upcoming Effective MySQL: Replication Techniques in Depth book details each step and all conditions to review over a dozen pages. While the steps are straightforward and generally well known, scripting this for your environment takes a certain amount of work to ensure your information is correct, and application connectivity loss is kept to a minimum.

    In Continuent Tungsten (which I have just been reviewing these past few weeks), I achieved the same result with a single command.

    $ echo "switch" |
      [Read more...]
    Looking for MySQL 4.1
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    I had need today to download a version of MySQL 4.1 to test something. The MySQL Developer Zone archives no longer provides any software before 5.0.

    While this may have long reached EOL and is no longer support, customers still do run this version of MySQL.

    Anybody that can help out with binaries (on several OS’s), it would be appreciated.

    SPOF Internet
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    SPOF (i.e. Single Point of Failure) is the bane for technologists. Avoiding SPOF generally requires redundancy, and redundancy has a cost, often more then a business is prepared to pay. In the database field, I see this regularly and advise clients on how to improve availability and potential avoid disasters that can affect their business.

    Today, at approximately 10:30am, the Con Edison work crew in front of my home (digging a 5″ deep trench down the road), severed multiple Time Warner Cable fibre connections. ($#&* and the lack of ownership to correct timely is another story). No Internet, no ability to work actively with clients (which I was doing), etc, etc.

    As an individual that works from home, I have recognized this SPOF and have redundancy in place. That is, a Verizon MiFi HotSpot, normally used for travel, but a backup in times of Internet downtime to my

      [Read more...]
    MySQL client password security
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    In case you missed it, MySQL 5.6.6, also known as Milestone 9, was recently released. I have yet to install this, however just one part of the MySQL 5.6.6 Release Notes makes placing installing and testing high on my TODO list.

    Updated 20 Sep, 2012. Be sure to also read Todd’s post Understanding mysql_config_editor’s security aspects about a more in-depth and accurate description of this new feature. In summary, “It makes secure access via MySQL client applications easier to use”.

    That is the reported improvements in password management. From the release notes:

    Security Improvements

    These security improvements were implemented:

      [Read more...]
    When is a crashing MySQL bug not a bug?
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    Answer: When Oracle acknowledges the bug in 5.5.25 (to the owner only), corrects the bug in 5.5.27 (to the owner only), yet hides all information of its existence.

    Recently a colleague and good friend discovered a bug in MySQL 5.5 replication that would crash MySQL. This was initially reported as Bug #65740, and after a lot of back and forth, a reproducible test case was found. Excellent work on the part of my colleague to spend the time to clearly identify the specific conditions. I remember looking at this initial thread in detail for an UPDATE statement using variables combined with an –ignore-database configuration option.

    For no explanation by Oracle, this bug was subsequently marked as private (after I originally viewed the thread publicly), corrected, and the corrected bug is not

      [Read more...]
    Recent Presentations in Cali, Colombia
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    On July 4 I gave two presentations at the OTN Tour Day, and on July 5 I have three presentations at the MySQL Training Days. This was my 3rd visit to Colombia and it was great to see a receptive audience. Thanks to Robin for organizing the events in 2010, 2011 and 2012.

    You can download all presentations from the provided links.

      [Read more...]
    New security fixes for MySQL reported
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    6 new security fixes for Oracle MySQL have been detailed in the most current Oracle Critical Patch Update (CPU).

    These are:

    • CVE-2012-1735 (5.5.23 and earlier)
    • CVE-2012-0540 (5.1.62 and earlier, 5.5.23 and earlier)
    • CVE-2012-1757 (5.5.23 and earlier )
    • CVE-2012-1756 (5.5.23 and earlier)
    • CVE-2012-1734 (5.1.62 and earlier, 5.5.23 and earlier )
    • CVE-2012-1689 (5.1.62 and earlier, 5.5.22 and earlier )

    Oracle strongly recommends that customers apply CPU fixes as soon as possible. Unfortunately there is no easy description for MySQL users what that really entails. There is a reference to Critical Patch Update July 2012 Patch Delivery Document for Oracle Sun Products Suite My Oracle Support Note 1446033.1, however all the

      [Read more...]
    I will be speaking at Percona Live New York
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    Percona is back for a second New York Percona Live Conference. As the resident New York MySQL Expert, I will again be presenting. My session will be on MySQL Backup and Recovery Essentials.

    You can only present so much in one hour, and this presentation just touches on the highlights of what is possible. More detailed information about the right backup and recovery strategy and associated tools is available in my current book Effective MySQL: Backup and Recovery.

    What compression do you use?
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    The following is an evaluation of various compression utilities that I tested when reviewing the various options for MySQL backup strategies. The overall winner in performance was pigz, a parallel implementation of gzip. If you use gzip today as most organizations do, this one change will improve your backup compression times.

    Details of the test:

    • The database is 5.4GB of data
    • mysqldump produces a backup file of 2.9GB
    • The server is an AWS t1.xlarge with a dedicated EBS volume for backups

    The following testing was performed to compare the time and % compression savings of various available open source products. This was not an exhaustive test with multiple iterations and different types of data files.

    Utility Compression Time
    (sec) Decompression Time
    (sec) New Size
    (% Saving) lzo

      [Read more...]
    Recent Presentations Buenos Aires MySQL/NoSQL/Cloud Conference
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    The first annual Latin America MySQL/NoSQL/Cloud Conference was held in Buenos Aires Argentina from June 26-28. Kudos to Santiago Lertora from Binlogic who had the vision for the conference in his country and made it happen. I look forward to the second annual event.

    My first presentation was “Improving Performance with Better Indexes”. This presentation details the six steps to SQL performance analysis, Capture, Identify, Confirm, Analyze, Optimize and Verify. An explanation of MySQL EXPLAIN, and working examples to create indexes and better covering indexes in several examples are provided. A production example of a 13 table join is used to detail how covering indexes and partial column indexes can make a dramatic improvement in performance.

      [Read more...]
    Upcoming MySQL Connect Presentations
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    The MySQL Connect 2012 conference event being held in San Francisco on Sep 29-30 has a long list of quality MySQL speakers including myself. I will be giving 2 presentations on:

    CON8322 – Lessons from Managing 500+ MySQL Instances

    In this presentation, learn about the issues of managing a large number of instances of MySQL, supporting 50 billion SQL statements per day. Topics covered:
    • The need for monitoring and instrumentation
    • How to automate installations, upgrades, and deployments
    • Issues with MySQL’s Replication feature with 300 slaves per master
    • Traffic minimization techniques
    • Creating high

      [Read more...]
    Recent Presentations at Charlotte South East LinuxFest
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    At the recent South East LinuxFest in June 2012 I gave two MySQL presentations.

    The first was on Explaining the MySQL Explain. This presentation details the MySQL Query Execution Plan (QEP) of an SQL statement and how to understand and interpret the information from the EXPLAIN command. Also discussed are additional commands and tools that exist to add supplementary information. These are essential skills that will be used daily in production operations. Download Presentation (PDF)

      [Read more...]
    REPOST: A Tragically Comedic Security Flaw in MySQL
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    “In short, if you try to authenticate to a MySQL server affected by this flaw, there is a chance it will accept your password even if the wrong one was supplied. The following one-liner in bash will provide access to an affected MySQL server as the root user account, without actually knowing the password.”

    $ for i in `seq 1 1000`; do mysql -u root --password=bad -h 2>/dev/null; done

    The following are confirmed distributions that are vulnerable:

    • Ubuntu Linux 64-bit ( 10.04, 10.10, 11.04, 11.10, 12.04 ) ( via many including @michealc )
    • OpenSuSE 12.1 64-bit MySQL 5.5.23-log ( via @michealc )
    • Debian Unstable 64-bit 5.5.23-2 ( via @derickr )
    • Fedora ( via hexed and confirmed by Red Hat )
    • Arch Linux (unspecified version)

    Full details can be found at

      [Read more...]
    South America Speaking Events
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    Following my 2 presentations at SouthEast LinuxFest on Friday and Open DB Camp on Sunday in Charlotte, NC, I will then be speaking at the first Latin America MySQL event in Buenos Aires, Argentina later this month. This will include at least six MySQL Alumni and key presentations from MariaDB and Tokutek.

    I will then be attending the OTN Tour 2012 event in Cali, Colombia the following week and also a dedicated 2 day MySQL Training Days following.

    UTF-8 with MySQL and LAMP
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    A recent question on a mailing list was the best practices for UTF-8 and PHP/MySQL. The following are the configurations I used in my multi-language projects.

    MySQL UTF-8 Configuration

    # my.cnf
    default_character_set = utf8
    character_set_client       = utf8
    character_set_server       = utf8
    default_character_set = utf8

    PHP UTF-8 Configuration

    default_charset = "utf-8"

    Apache UTF-8 Configuration

    AddDefaultCharset UTF-8
        AddCharset UTF-8   .htm

    HTML file UTF-8 Configuration

     <meta charset="utf-8">

    PHP file UTF-8 Configuration

    header('Content-type: text/html; charset=UTF-8');

    MySQL connection (extra precaution)

    SET NAMES utf8;

    Shell UTF-8

    And last

      [Read more...]
    Amateurs – They give us professionals a bad name
    +3 Vote Up -4Vote Down

    Any person with half a brain would see from the error messages below that the MySQL server is not operating optimally, or more specifically the MySQL upgrade has not completely successfully and let users can go happily use the website. It amazing me when web hosting providers tell their paying client that an upgrade has been performed yet they did not have the intelligence to actually look at the error log for confirmation. Got a mysql> prompt, it’s all good. One of the first things I check is the error log.

    When will people learn the MySQL error log is a valuable resource both for what it contains, and what it should not contain.

    120426 17:36:00 [Note] /usr/libexec/mysqld: Shutdown complete
    120426 17:36:00 mysqld_safe mysqld from pid file /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid ended
    120426 17:36:00 mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with
      [Read more...]
    I want a mysqldump –ignore-database option
    +4 Vote Up -0Vote Down

    While working with RDS and Google Cloud SQL I have come to realize that excluding the mysql schema from a mysqldump is important. However with many databases, the –all-databases option enables you only to select all or none. There is however an easy solution to exclude one or more databases in mysqldump with this little gem I created.

    $ time mysqldump --databases `mysql --skip-column-names -e "SELECT GROUP_CONCAT(schema_name SEPARATOR ' ') FROM information_schema.schemata WHERE schema_name NOT IN ('mysql','performance_schema','information_schema');" >` >/mysql/backup/rds2.sql

    An you can exclude as many schemas as you want.

    I checked the mysqldump –help, there was no option in MySQL 5.1, asked a colleague just to be sure I wasn’t wasting my time, and it took all of 2 minutes to create and test a working solution.

    When is a database schema not a database schema?
    +0 Vote Up -0Vote Down
    mysql> show schemas;
    | Database           |
    | information_schema |
    | innodb             |
    | mysql              |
    | performance_schema |
    4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
    mysql> drop schema innodb;
    ERROR 1010 (HY000): Error dropping database (can't rmdir './innodb/', errno: 17)

    This is an additional schema that is included in an AWS RDS installation. You should not put directories in the MySQL data directory.

    An excellent conference (5 out of 5 stars)
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    I wanted to extend thanks as others have also about the excellent annual MySQL Conference, now a Percona Live event. This was easily the best run, attended and energetic event in at least the past 3 years. With over a 1000 attendees a well stocked exhibitors hall (and good involvement in the hall), and good talks; there was just a great community vibe. To Terry, Kortney and all Percona staff involved, well done. The event ran on time, I personally did not see or hear of any issues. The only complaint was from many that wanted to attend multiple talks at the same time, another indication of the quality of speakers for the event.

    Thank you to those that attended my two sessions on Explaining the MySQL Explain and

      [Read more...]
    MySQL now has two user conferences (*)
    +5 Vote Up -1Vote Down

    PC World has written a post with this title(*) about the upcoming MySQL Connect conference and references the Percona Live conference and an official Percona comment. As this is not syndicated in Planet MySQL I encourage you to read the full article.

    This is the MySQL conference to get technical presentations by the many great Oracle/MySQL technical staff who will not be in attendance at Percona Live. There will also be a strong community presence in speaking at Oracle Connect in September. While Oracle was organizing a dedicated MySQL event in April for the community with all vendors including Percona to replace the conference dropped by long

      [Read more...]
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