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Previous 30 Newer Entries Showing entries 31 to 60 of 289 Next 30 Older Entries

Displaying posts with tag: Insight for DBAs (reset)

2 cases for MySQL server overload
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Your MySQL server is overloaded. You see hundreds of running queries in the SHOW PROCESSLIST taking many seconds to run, or can’t connect at all because all connections slots are busy. If you have worked with MySQL long enough you surely have seen it, probably more than once. This is what I would call “MySQL server overload” – having more work than the server can possibly handle. At this point I see people often jumping to the conclusion that something went wrong with MySQL and focus all their effort on this belief. This is also often how we see questions framed when they are filed with our Support or to Emergency Consulting.

In fact there are two very distinct causes for such a situation – and to find

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Renaming database schema in MySQL
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One of the routine tasks for a DBA is renaming database schemas, and as such MySQL added a command to carry out that purpose called “RENAME DATABASE <database_name>”. However this command just made it through a few minor releases before being discontinued (from MySQL 5.1.7 to 5.1.23). Here’s a link to the reference manual regarding the command http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.1/en/rename-database.html. Vadim wrote a MySQL Performance Blog post about this a few years ago where he mentions the dangerous nature of this command – that post was appropriately headlined, “Dangerous Command.” Today we will see what are the ways in which a

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Seconds_Behind_Master fluctuating wildly? Check for events caught in a loop
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Recently I was working with a customer where we noticed that Seconds_Behind_Master fluctuating from an expected value of 0 seconds behind to a fairly high six figure value.  The servers were configured in a master-master relationship and used 5 figure server_id values, and we had just migrated this cluster from one data centre to another by re-pointing masters.  Seeing large fluctuations in Seconds_Behind_Master can often be explained by long running queries being processed by the SQL_THREAD, however SHOW PROCESSLIST indicated that there were no long running replication events, and we had no other indication that the server was lagging  due to resource constraints — CPU, disk, and memory were under-utilized.

We then moved our investigation to manual review of the binary log where events appeared normal (5 digit server_id

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One more InnoDB gap lock to avoid
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While troubleshooting deadlocks for a customer, I came around an interesting situation involving InnoDB gap locks. For a non-INSERT write operation where the WHERE clause does not match any row, I expected there should’ve been no locks to be held by the transaction, but I was wrong. Let’s take a look at this table and and example UPDATE.

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE preferences \G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: preferences
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `preferences` (
  `numericId` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL,
  `receiveNotifications` tinyint(1) DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`numericId`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> BEGIN;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> SELECT COUNT(*)
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Multi-Data Center MySQL with Continuent Tungsten: Dec. 11 webinar
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I’m looking forward to next week’s MySQL webinar with Robert Hodges, CEO of Continuent. We’ll be speaking on the topic “Multi-Data Center MySQL with Continuent Tungsten.”

You’re not alone if you’ve been vexed when trying to assemble multi-master, multi-site MySQL clusters. Whether that was a move from a single database server to a scalable cluster, or from a brittle MySQL

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innodb_stats_on_metadata and slow queries on INFORMATION_SCHEMA
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INFORMATION_SCHEMA is usually the place to go when you want to get facts about a system (how many tables do we have? what are the 10 largest tables? What is data size and index size for table t?, etc). However it is also quite common that such queries are very slow and create lots of I/O load. Here is a tip to avoid theses hassles: set innodb_stats_on_metadata to OFF.

This is a topic we already talked about, but given the number of systems suffering from INFORMATION_SCHEMA slowness, I think it is good to bring innodb_stats_on_metadata back on the table.

The problem

Let’s look at a system I’ve seen recently: MySQL 5.5, working set fitting

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MySQL Error: Too many connections
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We have always received quite few questions here at Percona Support on how to avoid the dreaded “Too many connections” error, as well as what is the recommended value for max_connections. So, in this article I will try to cover best possible answers to these questions so others can mitigate similar kinds of issues.

My colleague Aurimas wrote a wonderful post some time back about changing max_connections value via GDB when MySQL server is running to get rid of the “Too many connections” error without restarting

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Integrating pt-online-schema-change with a Scripted Deployment
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Recently, I helped a client that was having issues with deployments causing locking in their production databases.  At a high level, the two key components used in the environment were:

  • Capistrano (scripted deployments) [website]
  • Liquibase (database version control) [website]

At a high level, they currently used a CLI call to Liquibase as a sub-task within a larger deployment task.  The goal of this engagement was to modify that sub-task to run Liquibase in a non-blocking fashion as opposed to the default that just runs native ALTERS against the database.

As I wasn’t very familiar with Liquibase, I took this opportunity to learn more about it and it seems like a very valuable tool.

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MySQL encryption performance, revisited
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This is part two on a two-part series on the performance implications of in-flight data encryption with MySQL. In the first part, I focused specifically on the impact of using MySQL’s built-in SSL support with some rather surprising results. Certainly it was expected that query throughput would be lower with SSL than without, but I was rather surprised by the magnitude of the performance hit incurred at connection setup time. These results naturally lended themselves to some further investigation; in particular, I wanted to compare performance differences between MySQL’s built-in SSL encryption facilities and external encryption technologies, such as SSH tunneling. I’ll also be using this post to address a couple of questions posed in the comments on my

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MySQL & Sphinx: Register now for Nov. 20 Webinar
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Sphinx is a free, open-source search server that integrates nicely with MySQL. It provides a fast, scalable, and pluggable search framework. The Sphinx engine possesses a variety of tools enabling you to customize how searching/indexing interacts with or becomes a part of your environment.

Join me and Sphinx Search CEO/CTO Andrew Aksyonoff, the founder and creative force behind Sphinx, on Wednesday, November 20th at 10 a.m. PST as we discuss how to get started with Sphinx and seamlessly integrate it into your applications and MySQL. The title of our webinar is, “How to Optimally Configure Sphinx Search for MySQL” and

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How Percona tested Percona Server 5.6: A world premiere in advanced testing
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8PM. One of the servers found a critical bug. Hop online and discuss, log bug. 10PM. Patch ready. 10:30PM. New build ready. 10:45PM. New RQG run initiated. This was by no means an uncommon sight during the months of testing that went into Percona Server 5.6, in fact it was commonplace.

At a certain point, we had 3 very high end servers (modern cpu’s, heaps of cores and memory), all equipped with either fast SSD’s or Fusion-io flash storage, executing thousands of trials, 8 in parallel per server, each executing 1 to 25 mysql threads per running mysqld instance.

And that was just the final months of testing. Before that much work was done on finding “every last bug out there”. We discovered many bugs in both upstream (Oracle’s MySQL 5.6) and in Percona Server 5.6. I personally logged around 100

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QA: Advanced Option Combinatorics (Pairwise Testing): Combinatorial mysqld Option Test Case Generation
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How do we ensure that, when we have 35+ testable option combinations for mysqld, we test each and every combination of them? For example: will a different innodb_log_file_size combined with more innodb_log_files_in_group and a modified innodb_fast_shutdown setting truly not affect Percona’s log archiving feature?

Most option-related bugs are caused by the setting of 1 or 2 mysqld options to a non-standard value. Maybe in an odd situation 3 mysqld options need to be set in combination. So, starting with 2 option combinations (1 option set is easy to calculate: it matches the number of options to be tested), let’s see how many combinations we would have to run: 35^2 = 1225

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How to Extract All Running Queries (Including the Last Executed Statement) from a Core File?
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This post builds on the How to obtain the “LES” (Last Executed Statement) from an Optimized Core Dump? post written about a year ago.

A day after that post was released, Shane Bester wrote an improved version, How to obtain all executing queries from a core file on his blog. Reading that post is key to understanding what follows.

I am faced with some complex bugs which would do well with SQL testcases. Extracting the last executed statement (and maybe all queries running at the time of the crash/asserts) is crucial to generate testcases well. E.g. you may have a full SQL

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How to recover an orphaned .ibd file with MySQL 5.6
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A few years ago Yves Trudeau and Aleksandr Kuzminsky wrote posts about different ways for recovering orphaned .ibd files:

Today I want to show you how to do that in more easy and quick way. In my example I’ll restore a “payment.ibd” file (payment table) from

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The power of MySQL’s GROUP_CONCAT
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In the very early days of Percona Vadim wrote very nice post about GROUP_CONCAT.

But I want to show you a bit more about it.

When is GROUP_CONCAT useful? Usually while working with Support customers I recommend it when you have aggregation of many-to-many info. It makes the view simpler and more beautiful and it doesn’t need much effort to make it work.

Some simple examples:

This is a test table:

CREATE TABLE `group_c` (
`parent_id` int(11)
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InnoDB scalability issues due to tables without primary keys
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Each day there is probably work done to improve performance of the InnoDB storage engine and remove bottlenecks and scalability issues. Hence there was another one I wanted to highlight:

Scalability issues due to tables without primary keys

This scalability issue is caused by the usage of tables without primary keys. This issue typically shows itself as contention on the InnoDB dict_sys mutex. Now the dict_sys mutex controls access to the data dictionary. This mutex is used at various places. I will only mention a few of them:

  • During operations such as opening and closing table handles, or
  • When accessing I_S tables, or
  • During undo of a freshly inserted row, or
  • During other data dictionary modification operations such as CREATE TABLE, or
  • Within the “Persistent Stats” subsystem,
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utf8 data on latin1 tables: converting to utf8 without downtime or double encoding
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Here’s a problem some or most of us have encountered. You have a latin1 table defined like below, and your application is storing utf8 data to the column on a latin1 connection. Obviously, double encoding occurs. Now your development team decided to use utf8 everywhere, but during the process you can only have as little to no downtime while keeping your stored data valid.

CREATE TABLE `t` (
  `id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `c` text,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
master> SET NAMES latin1;
master> INSERT INTO t (c) VALUES ('¡Celebración!');
master> SELECT id, c, HEX(c) FROM t;
+----+-----------------+--------------------------------+
| id | c               | HEX(c)                         |
+----+-----------------+--------------------------------+
|
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Innotop: A real-time, advanced investigation tool for MySQL
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GUI monitoring tools for MySQL are not always suitable for all our needs or situations. Most of them are designed to provide historical views into what happens to our database over time rather then real-time insight into current MySQL server status. Excellent free tools for this include Cacti, Zabbix, Ganglia, Nagios, etc. But each of them needs to be properly configured to provide details on what is going on in our MySQL instances. And setting up one of these monitoring solutions is neither

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Handling long-running queries in MySQL with Percona XtraBackup
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I recently had a case where replication lag on a slave was caused by a backup script. First reaction was to incriminate the additional pressure on the disks, but it turned out to be more subtle: Percona XtraBackup was not able to execute FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK due to a long-running query, and the server ended up being read-only. Let’s see how we can deal with that kind of situation.

In short

Starting with Percona XtraBackup 2.1.4, you can:

  • Configure a timeout after which the backup will be aborted (and the global lock released) with the lock-wait-threshold, lock-wait-query-type and lock-wait-timeout options
  • Or automatically kill all queries that prevent the lock to be granted with the kill-long-queries-timeout and
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SSL Performance Overhead in MySQL
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NOTE: This is part 1 of what will be a two-part series on the performance implications of using in-flight data encryption.

Some of you may recall my security webinar from back in mid-August; one of the follow-up questions that I was asked was about the performance impact of enabling SSL connections. My answer was 25%, based on some 2011 data that I had seen over on yaSSL’s website, but I included the caveat that it is workload-dependent, because the most expensive part of using SSL is establishing the connection. Not long thereafter, I received a request to conduct some more specific benchmarks surrounding SSL usage in MySQL,

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Tuning MySQL 5.6 configuration – Webinar followup
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We had a wonderful time during the Sept. 25 webinar, “MySQL 5.6 Configuration Optimization,” and I got a lot more questions than I could answer during the hour. So here is a followup with answers to the most interesting questions you guys asked. (You can also watch a recording of entire webinar here.)

Q: What is the impact of having innodb_stats_on_metadata=off in terms of seeing actual table size in

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Inexpensive SSDs for Database Workloads
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The cost of SSDs has been dropping rapidly, and at the time of this writing, 2.5-drives have reached the 1TB capacity mark.  You can actually get inexpensive drives for as little as 60 cents per GB. Even inexpensive SSDs can perform tens of thousands of IOPs and come with 1.5M – 2M hous MTBF and a 5-year warranty: check out the Intel SC S3500 specs as an example. There is however one important factor you need to take into account when considering  SSDs as opposed to conventional hard drives – Write Endurance.

Many of us have heard about SSDs having limits in terms of how many writes SSDs can handle, many however assume this is what is already

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Join my Oct. 2 webinar: ‘Implementing MySQL and Hadoop for Big Data’
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MySQL DBAs know that integrating MySQL and a big data solution can be challenging. That’s why I invite you to join me this Wednesday (Oct. 2) at 10 a.m. Pacific time for a free webinar in which I’ll walk you through how to implement a successful big data strategy with Apache Hadoop and MySQL. This webinar is specifically tailored for MySQL DBAs and developers (or any person with a previous MySQL experience) who wants to know about how to use Apache Hadoop together with MySQL for Big Data.

The webinar is titled, “Implementing MySQL and Hadoop for Big Data,” and you can

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How to reclaim space in InnoDB when innodb_file_per_table is ON
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When innodb_file_per_table is OFF and all data is going to be stored in ibdata files. If you drop some tables of delete some data then there is no any other way to reclaim that unused disk space except dump/reload method.

When Innodb_file_per_table is ON, each table stores data and indexes in it’s own tablespace file. However, the shared tablespace-ibdata1 can still grow and you can check more information here about why it grows and what are the solutions.

http://www.mysqlperformanceblog.com/2013/08/20/why-is-the-ibdata1-file-continuously-growing-in-mysql/

Following

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MySQL 5.6 Configuration Optimization Webinar, Sept. 25
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This Wednesday in our next webinar I’ll share how to configure a better-performing MySQL 5.6 server. You’ll lean a practical approach to generating a sensible configuration file that sets what is needed and omits what is not.

Why dedicate an entire webinar to the new configuration settings within MySQL 5.6? Mainly because the default configuration files that come with MySQL 5.6 are not designed for high volume production use, and I’ve seen many MySQL incidents caused by poor configuration. Hopefully my

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Percona Live London 2013: an insider’s view of the schedule
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With the close of call for papers earlier this month, the Percona Live London conference committee was in full swing this past week reviewing all of the many submissions for November’s Percona Live London MySQL Conference.

The submissions are far ranging and cover some really interesting topics, making the lineup for Percona Live London really strong! What the committee looks for in a submission is how much “value” a talk will bring to the

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Switching between versions using yum
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One type of question we get very often (even in the form of filed bugs!) is how to switch from stock MySQL to Percona Server or switch from Percona Server 5.5 to Percona XtraDB Cluster using yum, but à la apt-get, i.e. having yum handle the replace.

In its simplest form, yum cannot replace a package¹ for another like apt-get does:

 

# yum -q -q install Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-server
Error: Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-server conflicts with Percona-Server-server-55
Error: Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-client conflicts with Percona-Server-client-55
Error: Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-shared


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5 reasons why MySQL replication lag is flapping between 0 and XXXXX
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Working day to day with Percona Remote DBA customers, we have been facing an issue from time to time when MySQL replication lag is flapping between 0 and XXXXX constantly – i.e. Seconds_Behind_Master is 0 for a few secs, then it’s like 6287 or 25341, again 0 and so on. I would like to note the 5 different scenarios and symptoms of this – some are obvious and some are not really.

1. Duplicate server-ids on two or more slaves.

Symptoms: MySQL error log on a slave shows the slave thread is connecting/disconnecting from a master constantly.
Solution: check whether all nodes in the replication have unique

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Enabling crash-safe slaves with MySQL 5.6
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Being able to configure slaves to be crash-safe is one of the major improvements of MySQL 5.6 with regards to replication. However we noticed confusion on how to enable this feature correctly, so let’s clarify how it should be done.

In short

1. Stop MySQL on slave
2. Add relay_log_info_repository = TABLE and relay_log_recovery = ON in my.cnf
3. Restart MySQL and relax

The gory details

To fully understand why you should change the above settings if you want crash-safe slaves, let’s first look at the reasons why replication can break when a slave crashes.

On a slave, replication involves 2 threads: the IO thread which copies the binary log of the master to a local copy called the relay log and the SQL thread which then executes the queries written in the relay log. The current



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How to move the InnoDB log sequence number (LSN) forward
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This post focuses on the problem of the InnoDB log sequence number being in the future.

Preface: What is an InnoDB log sequence number?

The Log sequence number (LSN) is an important database parameter used by InnoDB in many places.
The most important use is for crash recovery and buffer pool purge control.

Internally, the InnoDB LSN counter never goes backward.
And, when InnoDB writes 50 bytes to the redo logs, the LSN increases by 50 bytes.
As such we can count LSN in megabytes, gigabytes and etc.

Now for the problem: LSN being in the future!

When you have set innodb_force_recovery like




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