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Showing entries 1 to 30 of 67 Next 30 Older Entries

Displaying posts with tag: ssd (reset)

Significant performance boost with new MariaDB page compression on FusionIO
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The MariaDB project is pleased to announce a special preview release of MariaDB 10.0.9 with significant performance gains on FusionIO devices. This is is a beta-quality preview release.

Download MariaDB 10.0.9-FusionIO preview

Background

The latest work between MariaDB and FusionIO has focused on dramatically improving performance of MariaDB on the high-end SSD drives produced by Fusion-IO and at the same time delivering much better endurance for the drives themselves. Furthermore, FusionIO flash memory solutions increase transactional database performance. MariaDB includes specialized improvements for FusionIO devices, leveraging a feature of the NVMFS filesystem on these popular, high performance solid state disks. Using this feature, MariaDB 10 can

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Luxbet, MariaDB and Melbourne Cup
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Yesterday was Melbourne Cup day in Australia – the biggest annual horse race event in the country, and in the state of Victoria it’s even a public holiday.

Open Query does work for Luxbet (part of Tabcorp), and Melbourne Cup day is by far their biggest day of the year in terms of traffic. It’s not just a big spike, there’s orders of magnitude difference so you can really say that the rest of the year is downright quiet (in relative terms). So, a very interesting load pattern.

Since last year Luxbet has upgraded from stock MySQL to MariaDB, and with our input made some other infrastructure modifications including moving to a pure solid state storage (FusionIO) solution as a SAN just won’t deliver the resilience and performance required. This

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After 10 Years, MySQL Still the Right Choice for ScienceLogic's "Best Network Monitoring System on the Planet"
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ScienceLogic has a pretty fantastic network monitoring appliance.  So good in fact that InfoWorld gave it their "2013 Best Network Monitoring System on the Planet" award.  Inside their "ultraflexible, ultrascalable, carrier-grade" enterprise appliance, ScienceLogic relies on MySQL and has since their start in 2003.  Check out some of the things they've been able to do with MySQL and their reasons for continuing to use MySQL in these highlights from our new MySQL ScienceLogic case study (http://www.mysql.com/why-mysql/case-studies/mysql-best-for-sciencelogic.html).
  • Science Logic's larger customers use their appliance to monitor and manage  20,000+ devices, each of which generates a steady stream of data and

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Considering TokuDB as an engine for timeseries data
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I am working on a customer’s system where the requirement is to store a lot of timeseries data from different sensors.

For performance reasons we are going to use SSD, and therefore there is a list of requirements for the architecture:

  • Provide high insertion rate
  • Provide a good compression rate to store more data on expensive SSDs
  • Engine should be SSD friendly (less writes per timeperiod to help with SSD wear)
  • Provide a reasonable response time (within ~50 ms) on SELECT queries on hot recently inserted data

Looking on these requirements I actually think that TokuDB might be a good fit for this task.

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Virident vCache vs. FlashCache: Part 1
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(This is part one of a two part series) Over the past few weeks I have been looking at a preview release of Virident’s vCache software, which is a kernel module and set of utilities designed to provide functionality similar to that of FlashCache. In particular, Virident engaged Percona to do a usability and feature-set comparison between vCache and FlashCache and also to conduct some benchmarks for the use case where the MySQL working set is significantly larger than the InnoDB buffer pool (thus leading to a lot of buffer pool disk reads) but still small enough to fit into the cache device. In this post and the next, I’ll present some of those

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Some LSI 9211-8i issues on Windows and Linux
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tl;dr:
Make sure you flash an LSI-9211 to IT firmware rev#14 to get it to work 
with Linux and SSD trim.  You may have to downgrade from newer firmware
to older firmware to get the card to work.


Finding a SATA III controller with more than one PCI-e lane
After a recent hardware issue I decided to upgrade my computer to use new Intel 520 120MB SSD drives in RAID for improved performance.  The motherboard I use (an ASUS Rampage III extreme) has a Marvel SATA III controller with two ports, but I discovered that it is connected via only a single PCI-e lane (each lane can do at most 400MB/sec*).  This means that it can't effectively support even a single Intel 520 because one device can saturate the SATA III bus (An Intel 520 is rated at up to 550MB/sec sequential write).

So I went on a quest for a new SATA 3 controller.   To




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Storage caching options in Linux 3.9 kernel
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dm-cache is (albeit still classified “experimental”) is in the just released Linux 3.9 kernel. It deals with generic block devices and uses the device mapper framework. While there have been a few other similar tools flying around, since this one has been adopted into the kernel it looks like this will be the one that you’ll be seeing the most in to the future. It saves sysadmins the hassle of compiling extra stuff for a system.

A typical use is for an SSD to cache a HDD. Similar to a battery backed RAID controller, the objective is to insulate the application from latency caused by the mechanical device, the most laggy part of which is seek time (measured in milliseconds). Giventhe  relatively high storage capacity of an SSD (in the hundreds of GBs), this allows you to mostly disregard the mechanical latency for writes and that’s very useful for

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MariaDB Introduces Atomic Writes
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Sysbench OLTP, transactions per second

When dealing with high performance, low latency storage devices, such as SSD cards, one finds bottlenecks in new places. This is a story about such a bottle neck and how to work around it.

One unique feature of InnoDB is the double write buffer. This buffer was implemented to recover from half-written pages. This can happen in case of a power failure while InnoDB is writing a page (16KB = 32 sectors) to disk. On reading that page, InnoDB would be able to discover the corruption from the mismatch of the page checksum. However in order to recover, an intact copy of the page would be needed.

The double write buffer provides such a copy. Whenever InnoDB flushes a page to disk, it is first written to the double write buffer. Only when the buffer is

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Testing the Micron P320h
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The Micron P320h SSD is an SLC-based PCIe solid-state storage device which claims to provide the highest read throughput of any server-grade SSD, and at Micron’s request, I recently took some time to put the card through its paces, and the numbers are indeed quite impressive.

For reference, the benchmarks for this device were performed primarily on a Dell R720 with 192GB of RAM and two Xeon E5-2660 processors that yield a total of 32 virtual cores. This is the same machine which was used in my previous benchmark run. A small handful of additional tests were also performed using the Cisco UCS C250. The operating system in use was CentOS 6.3, and for the sysbench fileIO tests, the EXT4 filesystem was used. The card itself is the 700GB model.

So let’s take

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How slow can SSD be or why is testing a new server performance important?
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Recently we have helped our customer to migrate their entire application stack from one data center to another. Before we were brought on-board, customer had already placed an order for a new set of servers with the new hosting provider. All of them were suppose to be high-end systems – many CPU cores, plenty of RAM and RAID array build on top of SSD drives. As the new machines started being available to us, we began setting up the new environment. At some point it turned out that the new machines were actually slower compared to the several year old systems and their load was much higher under comparable traffic.

We examined several of the new servers and each time the conclusion was that the problems were related poor I/O performance. In the benchmarks a RAID 10 array

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Don’t play with innodb_io_capacity! (with standard HDDs)
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A beautiful picture is sometimes better than words :

With standard HDDs (here in RAID 10), the innodb_io_capacity variable may have non expected effects.

You can see on this picture the result of a test on one of my server with only the replication thread activated. The value of the innodb_io_capacity variable was the single modification during the period.

So, don’t touch this parameter without a strong reason…
(Of course 30000 was a bit snooty)

[MAJ 2013-01-08] : I know 30k is a too high value for innodb_io_capacity, I used this value to make the graphe really eloquent.
Read this excellent post from Chris for more details : 


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On SSDs – Lifespans, Health Measurement and RAID
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Solid State Drive (SSD) have made it big and have made their way not only in desktop computing but also in mission-critical servers. SSDs have proved to be a break-through in IO performance and leave HDD far far behind in terms of Random IO performance. Random IO is what most of the database administrators would be concerned about as that is 90% of the IO pattern visible on database servers like MySQL. I have found Intel 520-series and Intel 910-series to be quite popular and they do give very good numbers in terms of Random IOPS. However, its not just performance that you should be concerned about, failure predictions and health gauges are also very important, as loss of data is a big NO-NO. There is a great deal of misconception about the endurance level of SSD, as its mostly compared to rotating disks even when measuring endurance levels, however, there is a big difference in how both SSD and HDD work, and that has a direct impact on the endurance level of SSD.
Webinar: Introduction to TokuDB v6.5
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TokuDB® is a proven solution that scales MySQL® and MariaDB® from GBs to TBs with unmatched insert and query speed, compression, replication performance and online schema flexibility. Tokutek’s recently launched TokuDB v6.5 delivers all of these features and more, not just for HDDs, but also for flash memory.

Originally Aired: October 10th
AVAILABLE ON DEMAND

TokuDB v6.5:

  • Stores 10x More Data – TokuDB delivers 10x compression without any performance degradation. Users can therefore take advantage of much greater amounts of available space without paying more for additional storage.
  • Delivers High Insertion Speed – TokuDB

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Amazon EC2 now powered by high performance storage (benchmark)
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A while ago I had a discussion with someone about the future of server infrastructure. Among other things, we were wondering whether companies will continue to run on dedicated servers or if eventually everyone just ends up in a Cloud environment. During the discussion I raised a point that in principle Cloud is a great idea that will keep attracting more and more people, but it is missing one important piece that stops many from using it – a high performance storage. Apparently, this has just changed.

Yesterday I received an e-mail announcing a new EC2 instance type – hi1.4xlarge. It features 16 logical CPUs (35 ECUs), 60GB of RAM, and… two 1TB SSD-based disk volumes! These are great specs that should work for nearly any database. Even assuming someone has a MySQL database larger than 2TB, not all tables will

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RethinkDB and SSD Databases. SSD was not a revolution.
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Turns out RethinkDB is a SSD database to watch in 2011. I’ve known about it for a while but it hasn’t really stood out just yet (I don’t know anyone running it in production).

That said, I’m excited by the potential.

What’s really shocking to me, is that while SSD and flash storage is very exciting, it wasn’t as revolutionary in 2010 as I would have liked to have seen.

I’m not sure why this is… there are people running them at scale but not significantly enough to make them a revolution.

RethinkDB is a MySQL data store optimized for solid state drives. Solid-state drives do away with moving parts and are extremely low-latency. Most database stores are designed for traditional hard drives and assume relatively high-latency. RethinkDB aims to allow database developers to take

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MySQL 5.5.8 and Percona Server on Fast Flash card (Virident tachIOn)
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This is to follow up on my previous post and show the results for MySQL 5.5.8 and Percona Server on the fastest hardware I have in our lab: a Cisco UCS C250 server with 384GB of RAM, powered by a Virident tachIOn 400GB SLC card.

To see different I/O patterns, I used different innodb_buffer_pool_size settings: 13G, 52G, an 144G on a tpcc-mysql workload with 1000W (around 100GB of data). This combination of buffer pool sizes gives us different data/memory ratios (for 13G - an I/O intensive workload, for 52G - half of the data fits into the buffer pool, for 144G -

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MySQL 5.5.8 and Percona Server: being adaptive
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As we can see, MySQL 5.5.8 comes with great improvements and scalability fixes. Adding up all the new features, you have a great release. However, there is one area I want to touch on in this post. At Percona, we consider it important not only to have the best peak performance, but also stable and predictable performance. I refer you to Peter's post, Performance Optimization and Six Sigma.

In Percona Server (and actually even before that, in percona-patches builds for 5.0), we added adaptive checkpoint algorithms, and later the InnoDB-plugin included an implementation of  "adaptive flushing". This post shows the differences between them and MySQL.

The post also answers the question of whether we are going to have releases of Percona

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Strata Gems: Who needs disks anyway?
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We're publishing a new Strata Gem each day all the way through to December 24. Yesterday's Gem: Kinect democratizes augmented reality.

Today's databases are designed for the spinning platter of the hard disk. They take into account that the slowest part of reading data is seeking: physically getting the read head to the part of the disk it needs to be in. But the emergence of cost effective solid state drives (SSD) is changing all those assumptions.

Over the course of 2010, systems designers have been realizing

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Virident tachIOn: New player on Flash PCI-E cards market
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(Note: The review was done as part of our consulting practice, but is totally independent and fully reflects our opinion)

In my talk on MySQL Conference and Expo 2010 "An Overview of Flash Storage for Databases" I mentioned that most likely there are other players coming soon. I actually was not aware about any real names at that time, it was just a guess, as PCI-E market is really attractive so FusionIO can't stay alone for long time. So I am not surprised to see new card provided by Virident and I was lucky enough to test a pre-production sample Virident tachIOn 400GB SLC card.

I think it will be fair to say that Virident targets where right now FusionIO has a monopoly, and it will

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FlashCache: tpcc workload with FusionIO card as cache
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This run is very similar what I had on Intel SSD X25-M card, but now I use FusionIO 80GB SLC card. I chose this card as smallest available card (and therefore cheapest. On Dell.com you can see it for about $3K). There is also FusionIO IO-Xtreme 80GB card, which is however MLC based and it could be not best choice for FlashCache usage ( as there high write rate on FlashCache for both reading and writing to/from disks, so lifetime could be short).

Also Facebook team released WriteThrough module for FlashCache, which could be good trade-off if you want extra warranty for data consistency and your

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PBXT in tpcc-like benchmark
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Finally I was able to run PBXT 1.0.11 pre-GA in tpcc-like workload, apparently there was bug with did not allow me to get the result earlier, and I am happy to see that PBXT team managed it.

For initial runs I took tpcc 100 warehouses ( about 10GB of data) which fully fits into memory (32 GB on server),
and compared 1 and 16 users in MySQL-5.1.46/PBXT and Percona Server / XtraDB - 5.1.45-rel10.2. As workload is totally memory based it will show how PBXT scales in CPU-bond cases on 16 cores systems.

As storage system it was Intel SSD X25-M card.

While full results and config are on Wiki:
http://www.percona.com/docs/wiki/benchmark:pbxt:tpcc:start

there are graphs for 1 user:




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FlashCache: more benchmarks
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Previously I covered simple case with FlashCache, when data fits into cache partitions, now I am trying to test when data is bigger than cache.

But before test setup let me address some concern (which I also had). Intel X25-M has a write cache which is not battery backuped, so there is suspect you may have data loss in the case of power outage.
And in the case with FlashCache it would mean you can send your database to trash, as there is no way to recovery from that ( only restore from backup).
I personally did couple of power failure tests and there is article on this topic http://www.anandtech.com/show/2614/10. I did not see any data loss in my tests, and the article says that the write cache "..isn't used for

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FlashCache: first experiments
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I wrote about FlashCache there, and since that I run couple benchmarks, to see what performance benefits we can expect.
For initial tries I took sysbench oltp tests ( read-only and read-write) and case when data fully fits into L2 cache.

I made binaries for FlashCache for CentOS 5.4, kernel 2.6.18-164.15, you can download it from our testing stage. It took some efforts to make binary, you may get my instructions for CentOS on FlashCache-dev mail-list, most likely it will not work for different CentOS / Kernel.

The full results, scripts and settings are on


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What is a Performance Model for SSDs?
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Here are the slides and video for my MySQL UC ignite talk on measuring the performance of SSDs.

You can find this talk and other mostly technical material at http://tokutek.com/technology/.

This research was funded in part by the National Science Foundation.

My MySQL keynote slides and video
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Been asked a few times in the last few days about where my slides are from my MySQL keynote from *last* year.

Ooops.

Um, yeah.  Sorry about that.  Here’s a link to ‘The SmugMug Tale’ slides, and you can watch the video below:

Sorry for the extreme lag.  I suck.

The important highlights go something like this:

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Should I buy a Fast SSD or more memory?
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While a scale-out solution has traditionally been popular for MySQL, it's interesting to see what room we now have to scale up - cheap memory, fast storage, better power efficiency.  There certainly are a lot of options now - I've been meeting about a customer/week using Fusion-IO cards.  One interesting choice I've seen people make however, is buying an SSD when they still have a lot of pages read/second - I would have preferred to buy memory instead, and use the storage device for writes.

Here's the benchmark I came up with to confirm if this is the case:

  • Percona-XtraDB-9.1 release
  • Sysbench OLTP workload with 80 million rows (about 18GB worth of data+indexes)
  • XFS Filesystem mounted with nobarrier option.
  • Tests run with:
    • RAID10 with BBU over 8 disks
    • Intel SSD X25-E 32GB
    • FusionIO 320GB MLC
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OpenSQLCamp Videos online!
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OpenSQLCamp was a huge success! I took videos of most of the sessions (we only had 3 video cameras, and 4 rooms, and 2 sessions were not recorded). Unfortunately, I was busy doing administrative stuff for opensqlcamp for the opening keynote and first 15 minutes of the session organizing, and when I got to the planning board, it was already full….so I was not able to give a session.

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My swap space on an SSD?
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I had an interesting discussion with 2 colleagues about the possible interest of putting the swap space of a system on a SSD.

If I consider the gain in latency that an SSD brings versus a capacity disk - in the region of 100x - the solution seems obvious. Swapping - or more precisely paging - must be much faster/ with an SSD. Since RAM is expensive versus SSD, I could even be tempted to design a system with a small amount of RAM and a large amount of swap space on SSDs. In other words, I can ask myself if trying to prevent my system to page is still a good fight?

Let's try to shed some light on these questions.

Paging takes place when my system runs out of RAM because more processes are created or because existing processes requires more memory (check this


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My swap space on an SSD?
Employee +0 Vote Up -0Vote Down

I had an interesting discussion with 2 colleagues about the possible interest of putting the swap space of a system on a SSD.

If I consider the gain in latency that an SSD brings versus a capacity disk - in the region of 100x - the solution seems obvious. Swapping - or more precisely paging - must be much faster/ with an SSD. Since RAM is expensive versus SSD, I could even be tempted to design a system with a small amount of RAM and a large amount of swap space on SSDs. In other words, I can ask myself if trying to prevent my system to page is still a good fight?

Let's try to shed some light on these questions.

Paging takes place when my system runs out of RAM because more processes are created or because existing processes requires more memory (check this


  [Read more...]
My swap space on an SSD?
Employee +0 Vote Up -0Vote Down

I had an interesting discussion with 2 colleagues about the possible interest of putting the swap space of a system on a SSD.

If I consider the gain in latency that an SSD brings versus a capacity disk - in the region of 100x - the solution seems obvious. Swapping - or more precisely paging - must be much faster/ with an SSD. Since RAM is expensive versus SSD, I could even be tempted to design a system with a small amount of RAM and a large amount of swap space on SSDs. In other words, I can ask myself if trying to prevent my system to page is still a good fight?

Let's try to shed some light on these questions.

Paging takes place when my system runs out of RAM because more processes are created or because existing processes requires more memory (check this


  [Read more...]
Showing entries 1 to 30 of 67 Next 30 Older Entries

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